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Chapter 22 Appendix B: A Guide to Research and Documentation

Research Documentation Guidelines

This appendix provides general guidelines for documenting researched information. See Chapter 7 "Researching" for more on the research process.

22.1 Choosing a Documentation Format

As a rule, your assignments requiring research will specify a documentation format. If you are free to use the style of your choice, you can choose any format you want as long as you are consistent, but you should know that certain disciplines tend to use specific documentation styles:

  • business and social sciences: American Psychological Association (APA)
  • natural and applied sciences: Council of Science Editors (CSE)
  • humanities: Modern Language Association (MLA) or the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

For the purposes of this appendix, we will confine ourselves to the three documentation formats that will be the most common in your undergraduate courses: the style manuals from APA and MLA, as well as CMS. (Other formats are listed at the end of this appendix. Also, note this appendix explains the “Notes-Bibliography” system of CMS, used more often in history, the arts, and humanities, rather than the “Author-Date” system, used in the sciences and social sciences.)

These three systems of documentation have been refined over many generations so that academics can rely on certain standards of attribution when they cite each other’s work and when their work is cited. When you enter into an academic conversation in a given discipline, it’s imperative that you play by its rules. It’s true that popular, nonacademic forms of attribution exist. Making a link to another website in a blog or a Twitter post works quite well, but in an academic context, such a form of attribution is not sufficient. Of course it should go without saying that stealing someone else’s words or borrowing them without attribution, whether you do it casually on the web or in an academic context, is simply wrong.

22.2 Integrating Sources

Your goal within a research paper is to integrate other sources smoothly into your paper to support the points you are making. As long as you give proper credit, you can ethically reference anyone else’s work. You should not, however, create a paper that is made up of one reference after another without any of your input. You should also avoid using half-page or whole-page quotations. Make sure to write enough of your material so that your sources are integrated into your work rather than making up the bulk of your paper.

Think of yourself as a kind of museum docent or tour guide when you are integrating sources into your work. You’ll usually want to take some time to set up your use of a source by placing it in a proper context. That’s why in most cases, before you even launch into quotation, paraphrase, or summary, you will have probably already used what’s called a “signal phrase” that identifies the author of the source, and often the specific publication (whether web or print) from which it is taken. After your use of the source, you’ll need to follow up with analysis and commentary on how you think it fits into the larger context of your argument.

22.3 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When you quote another writer’s exact words, you will have to identify the page number within the source where you found the quotation or the paragraph number if the source is taken from an online format or database that does not indicate the original print pagination. Note that only APA allows the use of “p.” or “pp.”

Table 22.1 Citing Quotations

APA MLA CMS
Explanation Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (p. #). Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name, year, p. #). Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (#). Include the author’s name either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name #) Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (#). Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name year, #)
Long Quotations (forty words or more): Place in an inset block of text without quotations. Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name, year, p. #). Long Quotations (more than four lines): Place in an inset block of text without quotations. Include the author’s name either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name #). Long Quotations (one hundred words or eight lines): Place in an inset block of text and do not use quotations. Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end: (name year, #).
Example #1 According to Fullan (2001), “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (p. 107). According to Fullan, “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (107). According to Fullan (2001), “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (107).
Example #2 “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan, 2001, p. 107). “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan 107). “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan 2001, 107).

Paraphrased and summarized text is cited within text in the same way that quoted material is cited except that quotations are not used. In APA style, you do not need to include page numbers in this case, but MLA and CMS, on the other hand, do still require page numbers, when they are available.

Table 22.2 Citing Paraphrased or Summarized Text

APA MLA CMS
Explanation In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name immediately followed by the date in parentheses (year) OR, if no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by a comma and the year (name, year). No quotation marks or page numbers are needed. In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name and, at the end of the summary or paraphrase, include the page number in parentheses (#). If no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by the page number (name #). No quotation marks or dates are needed. In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name immediately followed by the date in parentheses (year) and the page number at the end of the sentence (#). OR, if no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by a comma, the year, a comma, and the page number (name, year, #). No quotation marks are needed.
Example #1 As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms. As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (159). As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (159).
Example #2 Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld, 2008). Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld 159). Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld, 2008, 159).

22.4 Formatting In-Text References

When you use others’ ideas, you have a variety of options for integrating these sources into your text. The main requirement is that you make it clear within your in-text reference that the information is not yours and that you clearly indicate where you got the idea. The following box shows some alternate phrases for signaling that the ideas you are using belong to another writer. Using a variety of wording makes writing more interesting. Note: Past tense is used in these examples. You may elect to use present tense (“writes”) or past perfect tense (“has written”), but keep your tense use consistent.

Phrases That Signal an Idea Belongs to Another Writer (Shown in APA style)

  • According to Starr (2010)…
  • Acknowledging that…
  • Starr (2010) stated…
  • As Starr (2010) noted…
  • In 2010, Starr reported…
  • In the words of Starr (2010)…
  • It is obvious, according to Starr (2010), that…
  • Starr (2010) argued that…
  • Starr (2010) disagreed when she said…
  • Starr (2010) emphasized the importance of…
  • Starr (2010) suggested…
  • Starr observed in 2010 that…
  • Technology specialist, Linda Starr, claimed that…(2010).
  • …indicated Starr (2010).
  • …wrote Starr (2010)

Table 22.3 "Integrating Sources (Summarized or Paraphrased Ideas)" shows some actual examples of integrating sources within the guidelines of the three most common documentation formats. You should weave the cited details in with your ideas.

Table 22.3 Integrating Sources (Summarized or Paraphrased Ideas)

APA MLA CMS
Explanation Author’s name: Either within a signal phrase or in parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence. Author’s name: Either within a signal phrase or in parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence. Author’s name: Either within a signal phrase or in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Year: Either within parentheses after the name that is used in a signal phrase or after the name and a comma within the parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence (name, year). Page number: Either alone before the period at the end of the sentence or after the name within the parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence (name #). Year: Either within parentheses after the name that is used in a signal phrase or at the end of the sentence (name year, #).
Page number: Either alone within parentheses before the period at the end of the sentence or after the name and year and a comma within parentheses at the end of the sentence (name year, #).
Example #1 Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Starr (2010) indicated that teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology could cause roadblocks to integrating technology into classrooms. Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Starr indicated that teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology can cause road blocks to integrating technology into classrooms (1). Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Starr (2010) indicated that teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology could cause roadblocks to integrating technology into classrooms (1).
Example #2 Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology can cause roadblocks to integrating technology into classrooms (Starr, 2010). Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology can cause roadblocks to integrating technology into classrooms (Starr 1). Many school staffs discuss integrating technology without making significant progress in that direction. Teachers’ lack of personal understanding of technology can cause roadblocks to integrating technology into classrooms (Starr 2010, 1).

Table 22.4 Two Authors

APA MLA CMS
Example #1 Merriman and Nicoletti (2008) suggest that US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable. Merriman and Nicoletti suggest that US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable (9). Merriman and Nicoletti (2008) suggest that US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable (9).
Example #2 US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable (Merriman & Nicoletti, 2008). US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable (Merriman and Nicoletti 9). US K–12 education must take on a structure that is globally acceptable (Merriman & Nicoletti 2008, 9).

Table 22.5 Multiple Authors

APA MLA CMS
Explanation Three to five Authors: List all three authors at first reference (name, name, and name) and the first name plus “et al.” for subsequent references (name et al.). Three authors: Treat in same manner as two authors: (name, name, and name). Three authors: Treat in same manner as two authors: (name, name, and name).
Six or more authors: For all references, list the first name plus “et al.” (name et al.). Four or more authors: You can choose to list all authors or to use the first author name plus “et al.” (name et al.). Four or more authors: You can choose to list all authors or to use the first author name plus “et al.” (name et al.).
Example #1 Borsheim, Merritt, and Reed (2008) suggest that teachers do not have to give up traditional curricula in order to integrate technology. Borsheim, Merritt, and Reed (2008) suggest that teachers do not have to give up traditional curricula in order to integrate technology (87). Borsheim, Merritt, and Reed (2008) suggest that teachers do not have to give up traditional curricula in order to integrate technology (87).
Example #2 In fact, it has been argued that technology has become part of education without a great deal of effort from teachers (Borsheim et al., 2008). Some have argued that technology has become part of education without a great deal of effort from teachers (Borsheim et al. 87). In fact, some have argued that technology has been incorporated into education without a great deal of effort from teachers (Borsheim et al. 2008, 87).

Table 22.6 Personal Communication

APA MLA CMS
Example #1 Stanforth (personal communication, July 17, 2010) indicated she had been using a computer board in her classroom for three years and could not imagine giving it up. Stanforth indicated she had been using a computer board in her classroom for three years and could not imagine giving it up. Sue Stanforth (telephone interview by the author, July 17, 2010) indicated she had been using a computer board in her classroom for three years and could not imagine giving it up.
Example #2 Many teachers are angry that they are being pushed to include technology because they like the way their classrooms work without it (Kennedy, personal e-mail, June 25, 2009). Many teachers are angry that they are being pushed to include technology because they like the way their classrooms work without it (Kennedy). Many teachers are angry that they are being pushed to include technology because they like the way their classrooms work without it (Greg Kennedy, e-mail to author, June 25, 2009).

22.5 Developing a List of Sources

This appendix provides a general overview of some of the most common documentation guidelines for different types of sources. For situations not described in this appendix, such as types of sources not described in this chapter or situations where you elect to use footnotes or endnotes in addition to in-text, parenthetical citations, check the complete guidelines for the style you are using:

Some general online searches, especially those conducted on your library databases, are also likely to generate guidelines for a variety of documentation styles. Look for an opportunity to click on a “citation” or “documentation” icon, or ask a member of your college library staff for guidance. You can even get help through the word processing program you typically use. Microsoft Word, for instance, has an entire tab on the taskbar devoted to managing and documenting sources in all three of the styles featured here. Also, don’t forget the tip from Chapter 7 "Researching" about the free resources that abound on the web from various online writing labs (OWLs) managed by writing programs at colleges and universities across the country.

Each different documentation style has its own set of guidelines for creating a list of references at the end of the essay (called “works cited” in MLA, “references” in APA, and “bibliography” in CMS). This section includes citations for the sources included in other parts of this appendix. For additional citation styles, consult complete citation guidelines for the style you are using.

Source lists should always be in alphabetical order by the first word of each reference, and you should use hanging indentation (with the first line of each reference flush with the margin and subsequent lines indented one-half inch). Here are some of the most common types of entries you will be using for your references at the end of your research essays. These lists are by no means exhaustive, but you will note from the examples some of the most important differences in conventions of punctuation, font, and the exact content of each style.

Table 22.7 APA References

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change, 3rd edition. New York: Teachers.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, T. (2009). The NFL should proceed with caution on head injuries. Sporting News, 233(28), 71. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, B. (2008). The challenges of teaching with technology: From computer idiocy to computer competence. International Journal of Instructional Media, 35(2), 157–166.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, B., & Laserna, C. (1997). The role of the Internet in the adoption of computer modeling as legitimate high school science. Journal of Science Education and Technology 6, 3–13.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, C., Merritt, K., & Reed, D. (2008). Beyond technology for technology’s sake: Advancing multiliteracies in the twenty-first century. The Clearing House, 82(2), 87–90.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, J., Pea, R., Hoadley, C., Gordin, D., & Means, B. (2000). Changing how and what children learn in school with computer-based technology. Children and Computer Technology, 10(2), 76–101. Retrieved from http://www.futureofchildren.org/information2826/information_show.htm?doc_id=69809

Article from website with no specific author

Why integrate technology into the curriculum?: The reasons are many. (2008). Eutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction

Article from website with no date

Kelly, Melissa. (n.d.). Integrating the Internet. About.com: Secondary Education. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/cs/technology/a/integratetech_2.htm

Personal communication (e-mail)

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

G. Kennedy, personal communication, June 25, 2009.

Personal communication

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

S. Stanforth, personal communication, July 17, 2010.

Table 22.8 MLA Works Cited

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, Michael. The New Meaning of Educational Change. 3rd ed. New York: Teachers, 2001. Print.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, Troy. “The NFL Should Proceed with Caution on Head Injuries.” Sporting News 233.28 (2009): 71. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 11 Nov. 2010.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, Barbara. “The Challenges of Teaching with Technology: From Computer Idiocy to Computer Competence.” International Journal of Instructional Media 35.2 (2008): 157–66. Print.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, Bill, and Catalina Laserna. “The Role of the Internet in the Adoption of Computer Modeling as Legitimate High School Science.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 6 (2000): 3–13. Print.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, Carlin, Kelly Merritt, and Dawn Reed. “Beyond Technology for Technology’s Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-first Century.” The Clearing House 82.2 (2008): 87–90. Print.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, Jeremy M., Roy D. Pea, Christopher M. Hoadley, Douglas N. Gordin, and Barbara M. Means. “Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technology.” Children and Computer Technology, 10.2 (2000): 76–101. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Article from website with no specific author

“Why Integrate Technology into the Curriculum?: The Reasons Are Many.” Eutopia. 17 Mar. 2008. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Article from website with no date

Kelly, Melissa. “Integrating the Internet.” About.com: Secondary Education, n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Personal communication (e-mail)

Kennedy, Greg. “Integrating Technology.” Message to the author. 25 June 2009. E-mail.

Personal communication

Stanforth, Sue. Personal interview. 17 July 2010.

Table 22.9 CMS Bibliography

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, Michael. The New Meaning of Educational Change. 3rd ed. New York: Teachers, 2001.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, Troy. “The NFL Should Proceed with Caution on Head Injuries.” Sporting News 233, no. 28 (2009). Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, Barbara. “The Challenges of Teaching with Technology: from Computer Idiocy to Computer Competence.” International Journal of Instructional Media 35, no. 2: 157–66.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, Bill, and Catalina Laserna. “The Role of the Internet in the Adoption of Computer Modeling as Legitimate High School Science.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 6 (2000): 3–13.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, Carlin, Kelly Merritt, and Dawn Reed. “Beyond Technology for Technology’s Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-First Century.” The Clearing House 82, no. 2 (2008): 87–90.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, Jeremy M., Roy D. Pea, Christopher M. Hoadley, Douglas N. Gordin, and Barbara M. Means. “Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technology.” Children and Computer Technology 10, no. 2 (2000): 76–101. http://ctl.sri.com/publications/displayPublication.jsp?ID=114.

Article from a website with no specific author

“Why Integrate Technology into the Curriculum?: The Reasons Are Many.” Eutopia. http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction.

Article from a website with no date

Melissa Kelly. “Integrating the Internet.” About.com: Secondary Education. http://712educators.about.com/cs/technology/a/integratetech_2.htm.

Personal communication (e-mail)

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

Greg Kennedy, e-mail to author, June 25, 2009.

Personal communication

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

Sue Stanforth, telephone interview by the author, July 17, 2010.

22.6 Using Other Formats

Although APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most widely used documentation styles, many other styles are used in specific situations. Some of these other styles are listed in Table 22.10 "Other Documentation Formats". You can find more about them by searching online.

Table 22.10 Other Documentation Formats

Documentation Format Typical Use and Website with More Information
American Anthropological Association (AAA) Used by researches in anthropology (http://www.aaanet.org/publications/guidelines.cfm)
American Chemical Society (ACS) Used by researchers in the sciences (http://chemistry.library.wisc.edu/writing/acs-style-guidelines.html)
American Medical Association (AMA) Used by researchers in medicine, health, and biology (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com/oso/public/index.html)
American Political Science Association (APSA) Used by researchers in the political sciences (http://library.stmarytx.edu/acadlib/subject/misc/eldoapsa.htm)
Columbia Online Style (COS) Used by researchers in the humanities and the sciences (http://faculty.ccp.edu/dept/resourceguide/CGuideCOS.html)
Council of Science Editors (CSE) Used by researchers in the science and math fields (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/documentation/cbe_citation)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Used by researchers in the engineering field (http://www.ieee.org/index.html)
Legal Style (The Redbook) Used by researchers in the legal field (http://west.thomson.com/productdetail/136164/40045944/productdetail.aspx)
National Library of Medicine (NLM) Used by researchers in the medical field (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/recommendedformats.html)
Turabian Designed for college students to use in all subjects (http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_citationguide.html)
Vancouver Used by researchers in the biological sciences (http://www.michener.ca/lrc/lrcvanco.php)