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22.5 Developing a List of Sources

This appendix provides a general overview of some of the most common documentation guidelines for different types of sources. For situations not described in this appendix, such as types of sources not described in this chapter or situations where you elect to use footnotes or endnotes in addition to in-text, parenthetical citations, check the complete guidelines for the style you are using:

Some general online searches, especially those conducted on your library databases, are also likely to generate guidelines for a variety of documentation styles. Look for an opportunity to click on a “citation” or “documentation” icon, or ask a member of your college library staff for guidance. You can even get help through the word processing program you typically use. Microsoft Word, for instance, has an entire tab on the taskbar devoted to managing and documenting sources in all three of the styles featured here. Also, don’t forget the tip from Chapter 7 "Researching" about the free resources that abound on the web from various online writing labs (OWLs) managed by writing programs at colleges and universities across the country.

Each different documentation style has its own set of guidelines for creating a list of references at the end of the essay (called “works cited” in MLA, “references” in APA, and “bibliography” in CMS). This section includes citations for the sources included in other parts of this appendix. For additional citation styles, consult complete citation guidelines for the style you are using.

Source lists should always be in alphabetical order by the first word of each reference, and you should use hanging indentation (with the first line of each reference flush with the margin and subsequent lines indented one-half inch). Here are some of the most common types of entries you will be using for your references at the end of your research essays. These lists are by no means exhaustive, but you will note from the examples some of the most important differences in conventions of punctuation, font, and the exact content of each style.

Table 22.7 APA References

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change, 3rd edition. New York: Teachers.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, T. (2009). The NFL should proceed with caution on head injuries. Sporting News, 233(28), 71. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, B. (2008). The challenges of teaching with technology: From computer idiocy to computer competence. International Journal of Instructional Media, 35(2), 157–166.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, B., & Laserna, C. (1997). The role of the Internet in the adoption of computer modeling as legitimate high school science. Journal of Science Education and Technology 6, 3–13.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, C., Merritt, K., & Reed, D. (2008). Beyond technology for technology’s sake: Advancing multiliteracies in the twenty-first century. The Clearing House, 82(2), 87–90.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, J., Pea, R., Hoadley, C., Gordin, D., & Means, B. (2000). Changing how and what children learn in school with computer-based technology. Children and Computer Technology, 10(2), 76–101. Retrieved from http://www.futureofchildren.org/information2826/information_show.htm?doc_id=69809

Article from website with no specific author

Why integrate technology into the curriculum?: The reasons are many. (2008). Eutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction

Article from website with no date

Kelly, Melissa. (n.d.). Integrating the Internet. About.com: Secondary Education. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/cs/technology/a/integratetech_2.htm

Personal communication (e-mail)

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

G. Kennedy, personal communication, June 25, 2009.

Personal communication

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

S. Stanforth, personal communication, July 17, 2010.

Table 22.8 MLA Works Cited

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, Michael. The New Meaning of Educational Change. 3rd ed. New York: Teachers, 2001. Print.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, Troy. “The NFL Should Proceed with Caution on Head Injuries.” Sporting News 233.28 (2009): 71. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 11 Nov. 2010.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, Barbara. “The Challenges of Teaching with Technology: From Computer Idiocy to Computer Competence.” International Journal of Instructional Media 35.2 (2008): 157–66. Print.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, Bill, and Catalina Laserna. “The Role of the Internet in the Adoption of Computer Modeling as Legitimate High School Science.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 6 (2000): 3–13. Print.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, Carlin, Kelly Merritt, and Dawn Reed. “Beyond Technology for Technology’s Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-first Century.” The Clearing House 82.2 (2008): 87–90. Print.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, Jeremy M., Roy D. Pea, Christopher M. Hoadley, Douglas N. Gordin, and Barbara M. Means. “Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technology.” Children and Computer Technology, 10.2 (2000): 76–101. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Article from website with no specific author

“Why Integrate Technology into the Curriculum?: The Reasons Are Many.” Eutopia. 17 Mar. 2008. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Article from website with no date

Kelly, Melissa. “Integrating the Internet.” About.com: Secondary Education, n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.

Personal communication (e-mail)

Kennedy, Greg. “Integrating Technology.” Message to the author. 25 June 2009. E-mail.

Personal communication

Stanforth, Sue. Personal interview. 17 July 2010.

Table 22.9 CMS Bibliography

Citation Description Citation
Printed book

Fullan, Michael. The New Meaning of Educational Change. 3rd ed. New York: Teachers, 2001.

Article accessed through an online database

Aikman, Troy. “The NFL Should Proceed with Caution on Head Injuries.” Sporting News 233, no. 28 (2009). Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.

Article in a print periodical

Rosenfeld, Barbara. “The Challenges of Teaching with Technology: from Computer Idiocy to Computer Competence.” International Journal of Instructional Media 35, no. 2: 157–66.

Article by two authors in a print periodical

Barowy, Bill, and Catalina Laserna. “The Role of the Internet in the Adoption of Computer Modeling as Legitimate High School Science.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 6 (2000): 3–13.

Article by three authors in a print periodical

Borsheim, Carlin, Kelly Merritt, and Dawn Reed. “Beyond Technology for Technology’s Sake: Advancing Multiliteracies in the Twenty-First Century.” The Clearing House 82, no. 2 (2008): 87–90.

Article by more than three authors in a periodical accessed on the web

Roschelle, Jeremy M., Roy D. Pea, Christopher M. Hoadley, Douglas N. Gordin, and Barbara M. Means. “Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technology.” Children and Computer Technology 10, no. 2 (2000): 76–101. http://ctl.sri.com/publications/displayPublication.jsp?ID=114.

Article from a website with no specific author

“Why Integrate Technology into the Curriculum?: The Reasons Are Many.” Eutopia. http://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-introduction.

Article from a website with no date

Melissa Kelly. “Integrating the Internet.” About.com: Secondary Education. http://712educators.about.com/cs/technology/a/integratetech_2.htm.

Personal communication (e-mail)

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

Greg Kennedy, e-mail to author, June 25, 2009.

Personal communication

[Presented in text, but usually not included in bibliography.]

Sue Stanforth, telephone interview by the author, July 17, 2010.