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22.3 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When you quote another writer’s exact words, you will have to identify the page number within the source where you found the quotation or the paragraph number if the source is taken from an online format or database that does not indicate the original print pagination. Note that only APA allows the use of “p.” or “pp.”

Table 22.1 Citing Quotations

APA MLA CMS
Explanation Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (p. #). Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name, year, p. #). Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (#). Include the author’s name either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name #) Short Quotations: Place within quotation marks and follow with page number in parentheses (#). Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name year, #)
Long Quotations (forty words or more): Place in an inset block of text without quotations. Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name, year, p. #). Long Quotations (more than four lines): Place in an inset block of text without quotations. Include the author’s name either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end (name #). Long Quotations (one hundred words or eight lines): Place in an inset block of text and do not use quotations. Include the author’s name and date either in a signal phrase before the quotation or at the end: (name year, #).
Example #1 According to Fullan (2001), “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (p. 107). According to Fullan, “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (107). According to Fullan (2001), “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (107).
Example #2 “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan, 2001, p. 107). “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan 107). “Educational change depends on what teachers do and think—it’s as simple and complex as that” (Fullan 2001, 107).

Paraphrased and summarized text is cited within text in the same way that quoted material is cited except that quotations are not used. In APA style, you do not need to include page numbers in this case, but MLA and CMS, on the other hand, do still require page numbers, when they are available.

Table 22.2 Citing Paraphrased or Summarized Text

APA MLA CMS
Explanation In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name immediately followed by the date in parentheses (year) OR, if no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by a comma and the year (name, year). No quotation marks or page numbers are needed. In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name and, at the end of the summary or paraphrase, include the page number in parentheses (#). If no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by the page number (name #). No quotation marks or dates are needed. In a signal phrase before the paraphrase or summary, include the author’s last name immediately followed by the date in parentheses (year) and the page number at the end of the sentence (#). OR, if no signal phrase is used, include the author’s last name at the end of the paraphrase or summary followed by a comma, the year, a comma, and the page number (name, year, #). No quotation marks are needed.
Example #1 As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms. As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (159). As Rosenfeld (2008) states, teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (159).
Example #2 Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld, 2008). Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld 159). Teachers have to both understand and be comfortable with technology before they will be able to take technology into their classrooms (Rosenfeld, 2008, 159).