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Chapter 21 Appendix A: Writing for Nonnative English Speakers

Multilingual Writers

If you learned English as a second language and you regularly speak a language other than English, this appendix is for you. It also provides a refresher course on many of the elements in Chapter 15 "Sentence Building", Chapter 16 "Sentence Style", Chapter 17 "Word Choice", Chapter 18 "Punctuation", Chapter 19 "Mechanics", and Chapter 20 "Grammar".

21.1 Parts of Speech

In English, words are used in one of eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection. This table includes an explanation and examples of each of the eight parts of speech.

Noun Person, place, or thing Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. Iowa book arm
horse idea month
Pronoun Takes the place of a noun Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. he it I
her my theirs
Adjective Describes a noun or pronoun Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. sticky funny crazy
long cold round
Verb Shows action or state of being Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. run jump felt
think is gone
Adverb Describes a verb, another adverb, or an adjective and tells how, where, or when something is done Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. slowly easily very
often heavily sharply
Conjunction Joins words, phrases, and clauses Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. and because but
since or so
Preposition First word in a phrase that indicates the relationship of the phrase to other words in the sentence Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. in on to
after at over
Interjection A word that shows emotion and is not related to the rest of the sentence Wow! After the game, silly Mary ate her apples and carrots quickly. Hey Wow Look
Super Oh Yuck

21.2 English Word Order

The simplest level of English word order within a sentence is that subjects come first followed by verbs and then direct objects.

Figure 21.1

When you have more complicated sentences, use the following general order.

Figure 21.2

When an English sentence includes more than one adjective modifying a given noun, the adjectives have a hierarchy you should follow. The adjectives that modify the noun within Table 21.1 "Hierarchical Order of Adjectives" show that hierarchical order. You should, however, keep a string of adjectives to two or three. The example includes a longer string of adjectives simply to clarify the word order. Using this table, you can see that “the small thin Methodist girl…” would be correct but “the young French small girl…” would be incorrect.

Some languages, such as Spanish, insert “no” before a verb to create a negative sentence. In English, the negative is often indicated by placing “not” after the verb or in a contraction with the verb.

Example

I can’t make it before 1:00 p.m.

Incorrect example: I no can make it before 1:00 p.m.

21.3 Count and Noncount Nouns

Nouns that name separate things or people that you can count are called count nouns. Nouns that name things that cannot be counted unless additional words are added are called noncount nouns. You need to understand count and noncount nouns in order to use the nouns correctly with articles, in singular and plural formations, and in other situations. Some nouns can serve as either count or noncount nouns.

Examples of Count Nouns

  • box(es)
  • dog(s)
  • house(s)
  • leaf (leaves)
  • moon(s)
  • peach(es)
  • sheep
  • women

Examples of Noncount Nouns

  • advice
  • cheese
  • equipment
  • furniture
  • information
  • Internet
  • mail
  • weather

Examples of Nouns That Can Be Either Count or Noncount Nouns

  • baseball (play baseball vs. throw a baseball)
  • love (He is my love! vs. two loves: poetry and basketball)
  • marble (play with a marble vs. a floor made of marble)

21.4 Articles

In English, nouns are identified or quantified by determiners. Articles, such as a, an, and the, are one type of determiner. Use the following guidelines to alleviate confusion regarding whether to use an article or which article to use.

  • Use a and an with nonspecific or indefinite singular count nouns and some proper nouns where you do not have enough information to be more specific. Use a before nouns beginning with a consonant sound and an before nouns beginning with a vowel sound.

Example 1

I have a dog at home, also. (The word “dog” is a nonspecific noun since it doesn’t refer to any certain dog.)

Example 2

(before a vowel): Carrie gave everyone an apple at lunch.

Example 3

(before a consonant; with proper noun): He was wearing a Texas shirt.

  • Use every and each with singular count nouns and some proper nouns.

Example 1

I heard every noise all night long.

Example 2

I tried each Jell-O flavor and liked them all.

  • Use this and that with singular count and noncount nouns.

Example 1

(with count noun): I am going to eat that apple.

Example 2

(with noncount noun): I am not too excited about this weather.

  • Use any, enough, and some with nonspecific or indefinite plural nouns (count or noncount).

Example 1

I didn’t have any donuts at the meeting because he ate them all.

Example 2

Do you have enough donuts for everyone?

Example 3

He ate some donuts at the meeting.

  • Use (a) little and much with noncount nouns.

Example 1

I’d like a little meatloaf, please.

Example 2

There’s not much spaghetti left.

  • Use the with noncount nouns and singular and plural count nouns.

Example 1

(with noncount noun): The weather is beautiful today.

Example 2

(with singular count noun): Who opened the door?

Example 3

(with plural count noun): All the houses had brick fronts.

  • Use both, (a) few, many, several, these, and those with plural count nouns.

Example 1

I have a few books you might like to borrow.

Example 2

Daryl and Louise have been traveling for several days.

Example 3

Are those shoes yours?

21.5 Singulars and Plurals

English count nouns have singular and plural forms. Typically, these nouns are formed by adding -s or -es. Words that end in -ch, -sh, or -s usually require the addition of -es to form the plural. Atypical plurals are formed in various ways, such as those shown in the following table.

Singular Nouns Plural Nouns
dog dogs (-s added)
table tables (-s added)
peach peaches (-es added)
wish wishes (-es added)
kiss kisses (-es added)
man men (atypical)
sheep sheep (atypical)
tooth teeth (atypical)
child children (atypical)
alumnus alumni (atypical)
leaf leaves (atypical)

Proper nouns are typically either singular or plural. Plural proper nouns usually have no singular form, and singular proper nouns usually have no plural form.

Singular Proper Nouns Plural Proper Nouns
Kentucky Sawtooth Mountains
Alex The Everglades

Noncount nouns typically have only one form that is basically a singular form. To quantify them, you can add a preceding phrase.

Noncount Nouns Sentences with Noncount Nouns and Quantifying Phrases
gas We put twelve gallons of gas in the car this morning.
anguish After years of anguish, he finally found happiness.

21.6 Verb Tenses

You can practice conjugating many English verbs to increase your awareness of verb tenses. Use this format for the basic conjugation:

  • I laugh at Millie.
  • You laugh at Millie.
  • He/She/It laughs at Millie.
  • We laugh at Millie.
  • You laugh at Millie.
  • They laugh at Millie.

You can also practice completing these five forms of English. A mixture of tenses is used to show that you can practice the different forms with any tense.

Affirmative Usage

  • I play ball.
  • You play ball.
  • She plays ball.
  • We play ball.
  • You play ball.
  • They play ball.

Negative Usage

  • I do not play ball.
  • You do not play ball.
  • She does not play ball.
  • We do not play ball.
  • You do not play ball.
  • They do not play ball.

Yes/No Questions

  • Do you play ball?
  • Does she play ball?
  • Do we play ball?
  • Do they play ball?

Short Answers

  • Yes, I do.
  • Yes, she does.
  • No, they do not.
  • No, you do not.

Wh- Questions

  • Who is she?
  • Where did you find it?
  • When are you coming?
  • Why won’t it work?
  • What are you going to do?

See Chapter 15 "Sentence Building", Section 15.2 "Choosing Appropriate Verb Tenses" for an in-depth overview of verb tenses.

21.7 Correct Verbs

People who are new to English often experience confusion about which verb forms can serve as the verb in a sentence. An English sentence must include at least one verb or verb phrase and a tense that relays the time during which the action is taking place. Verbals (such as gerunds and infinitives) should not be confused with verbs.

  • A sentence with a gerund must also have another verb.

Example

Correct example: Roger enjoys driving the RV.

Incorrect example: Roger driving the RV.

  • A sentence with an infinitive must have another verb.

Example

Correct example: Kyle decided to write a long message.

Incorrect example: Kyle to write a long message.

  • Verbs must match the timing indicated by the other words in a sentence.

Example

Past tense correct example: Yesterday, I called you at 5:00 p.m.

Past tense incorrect example: Yesterday, I call you at 5:00 p.m.

Future tense correct example: The next time it rains, I will bring my umbrella.

Future tense incorrect example: The next time it rains, I bring my umbrella.

Present tense correct example: Come in and get warm.

Present tense incorrect example: Come in and got warm.

See Chapter 15 "Sentence Building", Section 15.2 "Choosing Appropriate Verb Tenses" for a more extensive overview of verb tenses.

21.8 Modal Auxiliary Verbs

Figure 21.3

The English language includes nine main modal auxiliary verbs that are used with other verbs. These modals, shown in the wheel in four pairs and a single, can refer to past, present, or future tense based on the verbs that are used with them. The modals themselves do not change form to change tense. As shown in the following table, you can use modals to express an attitude in regard to the action or general situation of the sentence.

Modal Function Format for Present or Future Tense Format for Past Tense
Advisability should or ought to + base verb should or ought to + have + past participle
You should take the time to visit Yellowstone. You ought to have taken the time to visit Yellowstone.
Capability can, am able to, is able to, or are able to + base verb could, was able to, were able to + base verb or past participle
Aisha can tell you who was at the party. Saul was able to walk on the beam without falling off.
Deduction must, has to + base verb must + have + past participle
Hank must know Spanish and French. Lucy must have driven through the night.
Forbiddance must + not + base verb N/A
You must not take his food.
Expectation should + base verb should + have + past participle
The sun should set about 7:15 today. The boys should have finished their ball game by now.
Intention will or shall + base verb would + base verb
I will meet you at the theater. I said I would finish sometime today.
Necessity must or have to + base verb had to+ base verb
I must finish cleaning before they arrive. Greg had to get gas before we started the trip.
Past habit N/A would or used to + base verb
When I worked there, I used to eat at Marvy’s every day.
Permission request can, could, may, or might + base verb (in question format) might or could + base verb
Could I go with you? My parents said I could use their car next week.
Polite request could or would + base verb (in question format) N/A
Would you please hand me page 45?
Possibility/uncertainty may or might + base verb might + have + past participle
Alice might be at work by 6:00 a.m. I don’t remember, but I might have been the one sitting next to him that night.
Speculation could, might, or would + base verb could, might, or would + have + past participle
If he conditions enough, he could win his race. There could have been some real money in that deal we almost made.

21.9 Gerunds and Infinitives

Gerunds are nouns formed by adding -ing to a verb, such as running. Infinitives are nouns formed from the “to” form of a verb, such as to run. These two noun forms are called verbals, because they are formed from verbs. Experience with English will teach you which form to use in which situation. In the meantime, the following lists provide a brief overview.

Verbs That Should Be Followed Only by Gerunds and Not by Infinitives

These Verbs Could Fill This Blank: _______ (His) Walking

  • admit
  • avoid
  • complete
  • consider
  • delay
  • deny
  • dislike
  • finish
  • imagine
  • miss
  • postpone
  • quit
  • recommend
  • resist
  • stop
  • suggest
  • understand

Verbs That Should Be Followed Only by Infinitives and Not by Gerunds

These Verbs Could Fill This Blank: ________ to Walk

  • agree
  • appear
  • ask
  • beg
  • claim
  • decide
  • demand
  • desire
  • fail
  • happen
  • hesitate
  • intend
  • manage
  • offer
  • plan
  • pretend
  • struggle

Verbs That Can Be Followed by Either Gerunds or Infinitives

These Verbs Could Fill Either of These Blanks: ________ (His) Walking or ________ to Walk

  • begin
  • can(’t) afford
  • can(’t) bear
  • cease
  • commence
  • continue
  • dread
  • hate
  • intend
  • like
  • loathe
  • love
  • neglect
  • prefer
  • start
  • try
  • undertake

See Chapter 20 "Grammar", Section 20.1.7 "Deciding If Relative Pronouns Take a Singular or Plural Verb" for more information regarding gerunds and infinitives.

21.10 Forming Participles

Participles are verb forms that combine with auxiliary verbs to create different tenses.

21.11 Adverbs and Adjectives

Adverbs often end in -ly and modify verbs, other adverbs, and adjectives. As a rule, you should place an adverb next to or close to the word it modifies, although adverbs can be placed in different positions within a sentence without affecting its meaning.

Example

Before the verb: “He slowly walked to the store.”

After the verb: “He walked slowly to the store.”

At the beginning of the sentence:Slowly, he walked to the store.”

At the end of the sentence: “He walked to the store slowly.”

Between an auxiliary and main verb: “He was slowly walking to the store.”

Some adverbs, however, have a different meaning based on where they are placed. You should check to make sure that your placement carries the intended meaning.

Example

“She only loved him.”

Translation: “The only emotion she felt toward him was love.”

Only she loved him.”

Translation: “The only person who loved him was her.”

“She loved only him.” or “She loved him only.”

Translation: “The only person she loved was him.”

Some adverbs simply do not work between the verb and the direct object in a sentence.

Example

Acceptable adverb placement: She barely heard the noise.

Unacceptable adverb placement: She heard barely the noise.

Adjectives modify nouns and in some more heavily inflected languages, the endings of adjectives change to agree with the number and gender of the noun. In English, adjectives do not change in this way. For example, within the following sentences, note how the spelling of the adjective “eager” remains the same, regardless of the number or the gender of the noun it modifies.

The eager boy jumped the starting gun.

The eager boys lined up.

The eager girls eyed the starter.

As in these sentences, adjectives usually are placed before a noun. The noun can be the subject, as in the preceding example, or a direct object, as in the following sentence.

Harold admired his shiny red car.

Adjectives can also be placed after a linking verb. The adjective still modifies a noun but is not placed next to the noun, as in the following example.

The weather was miserable.

When two or more adjectives are used to modify a single noun, they should be used in a set order, as shown in Table 21.1 "Hierarchical Order of Adjectives". Even though the table shows ten levels within the hierarchy, you should limit your adjectives per noun to two or three.

Table 21.1 Hierarchical Order of Adjectives

Determiner Opinion or Assessment Physical Description Nationality Religion Material Noun
Size Shape Age Color
The pretty small thin young white French Methodist plastic girl

When using an adverb and adjective together with a noun, you should typically place the adverb first, followed by the adjective, and then the noun.

the strikingly golden tree

For more information about adverbs and adjectives, see Chapter 20 "Grammar", Section 20.6 "Using Adverbs and Adjectives".

21.12 Irregular Adjectives

In English, adjectives have comparative and superlative forms that are used to more exactly describe nouns.

Example

Joey is tall, Pete is taller than Joey, and Malik is the tallest of the three boys.

One common way to form the comparative and superlative forms is to add -er and -est, respectively, as shown in the preceding example. A second common method is to use the words more and most or less and least, as shown in the following example.

Example

Lucy is eager to start, Callie is more eager, and Shannon is the most eager.

Some adjectives do not follow these two common methods of forming comparatives and superlatives. You will simply have to learn these irregular adjectives by heart. Some of them are listed Table 21.2 "Sample Adjectives That Form Superlatives Using Irregular Patterns". Notice that some are irregular when used with a certain meaning and not when used with a different meaning. See Chapter 20 "Grammar", Section 20.6.3 "Using Comparatives and Superlatives" for more examples of irregular adjectives.

Table 21.2 Sample Adjectives That Form Superlatives Using Irregular Patterns

much (noncount nouns) more most
many (count nouns) more most
little (size) littler littlest
little (number) less least
old (people and things) older oldest
old (family members) elder eldest

Some adjectives’ comparatives and superlatives can be formed with either -er and -est or with more and most (or less and least). In these cases, choose the version that works best within a given sentence.

Table 21.3 Sample Adjectives That Can Form Superlatives Using -er and -est or More and Most

clever cleverer cleverest
clever more clever most clever
gentle gentler gentlest
gentle more gentle most gentle
friendly friendlier friendliest
friendly more friendly most friendly
quiet quieter quietest
quiet more quiet most quiet
simple simpler simplest
simple more simple most simple

Some adjectives do not have comparative and superlative forms since the simplest form expresses the only possible form.

Sample Adjectives That Do Not Have Comparative and Superlative Forms

  • blind
  • dead
  • fatal
  • final
  • left
  • right
  • unique
  • universal
  • vertical
  • wrong

21.13 Indefinite Adjectives

Indefinite adjectives give nonspecific information about a noun. For example, the indefinite article few indicates some, but not an exact amount. Indefinite adjectives are easily confused with indefinite pronouns since they are the same words used differently. An indefinite pronoun replaces a noun. An indefinite adjective precedes a noun or pronoun and modifies it. It is important for you to understand the difference between indefinite adjectives and pronouns to assure you are saying what you mean. Some common indefinite adjectives include all, any, anything, each, every, few, many, one, several, some, somebody, and someone.

Example

Indefinite adjective: We are having some cake for dessert.

Indefinite pronoun: I like cake. I’ll have some, please.

Indefinite adjective: You can find a state name on each quarter.

Indefinite pronoun: I have four Illinois quarters, and each is brand new.

21.14 Predicate Adjectives

Since linking verbs express a state of being instead of an action, adjectives are used after them instead of adverbs. An adjective that follows a linking verb is referred to as a predicate adjective. Be careful not to use an adverb simply because of the proximity to the verb.

Example

Correct (adjective follows linking verb): Kelly is selfish.

Incorrect (adverb follows linking verb): Kelly is selfishly.

Correct (adjective follows linking verb): Beth seems eager.

Incorrect (adverb follows linking verb): Beth seems eagerly.

Linking Verbs That Can Be Followed by Adjectives

  • appear
  • be
  • become
  • feel
  • get
  • grow
  • keep
  • look
  • prove
  • remain
  • seem
  • smell
  • sound
  • stay
  • taste
  • turn

21.15 Clauses and Phrases

Clauses include both subjects and verbs that work together as a single unit. When they form stand-alone sentences, they’re called independent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone or can be used with other clauses and phrases. A dependent clause also includes both a subject and a verb, but it must combine with an independent clause to form a complete sentence.

Types of Dependent Clauses Descriptions Examples
Adverb clause Serves as an adverb; tells when, how, why, where, under what condition, to what degree, how often, or how much To avoid sunburn, she plastered her body with sunscreen.
Noun clause Serves as a noun when attached to a verb That she would win the race seemed quite likely.
She thought that she would win the race.
Adjective clause (also called a relative clause) Begins with a relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which) or a relative adverb (when, where, why); functions as an adjective; attaches to a noun; has both a subject and a verb; tells what kind, how many, or which one The day that he lost his watch was an unlucky day.*
The house where they lived is gone.
Appositive clause Functions as an appositive by restating a noun or noun-related verb in clause form; begins with that; typical nouns involved include possibilities such as assumption, belief, conviction, idea, knowledge, and theory The idea that Josie will someday be taller than me is crazy.
*In some instances, the relative pronoun or adverb can be implied (e.g., “The day he lost his watch was an unlucky day”).

Phrases are groups of words that work together as a single unit but do not have a subject or a verb. English includes five basic kinds of phrases.

Types of Phrases Descriptions Examples
Noun phrase Multiple words serving as a noun Darcy ate a ham sandwich.
Verb phrase Used as the verb in sentences that are in the progressive and perfect tenses The class should have started a half-hour earlier.
Prepositional phrase Begins with a preposition (covered in more depth in Section 21.9 "Gerunds and Infinitives") Work will be easier after the holiday rush.
Adjective phrase Functions as an adjective; might include prepositional phrases and/or nouns My brother is very tall and handsome.
Adverb phrase Functions as an adverb; might include prepositional phrases and/or multiple adverbs Let’s go walking after dinner.
Ignacia walked wearily and unsteadily.

21.16 Relative Pronouns and Clauses

An adjective clause gives information about a preceding noun in a sentence. Look at the following examples.

The car that Richie was driving was yellow.

Des Moines, where I live, is in Iowa.

Mr. Creeter, whose brother I know, is the new math teacher.

Like many other adjective clauses, these begin with a relative adjective (which, who, whom, whose, that) or a relative adverb (when or where). When you use a relative clause to describe a noun, make sure to begin it with one of the seven relative adjectives and adverbs listed in the previous sentence.

21.17 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

Prepositions are words that show the relationships between two or more other words. Choosing correct prepositions can be challenging, but the following examples will help clarify how to use some of the most common prepositions.

Types of Prepositions Examples of Prepositions How to Use Prepositions Used in Sentences
Time at Use with hours of the day and these words that indicate time of day: dawn, midnight, night, and noon We will eat at 11:30.
We will eat at noon.
by Use with time words to indicate a particular time I’ll be there by 5:00.
I’ll be finished by October.
in Use with the and these time-of-day words: afternoon, evening, and morning We’ll start in the morning.
Use on its own with months, seasons, and years The rainy season starts in June.
on Use with days of the week I’ll see you on Friday.
Location at Use to indicate a particular place I’ll stop at the dry cleaners.
in Use when indicating that an item or person is within given boundaries My ticket is in my pocket.
by Use to mean “near a particular place” My desk is by the back door.
on Use when indicating a surface or site on which something rests or is located Place it on the table, please.
My office is on Lincoln Boulevard.
Logical relationships of Use to indicate part of a whole I ate half of the sandwich.
Use to indicate contents or makeup I brought a bag of chips.
for Use to show purpose Jake uses his apron for grilling.
State of being in Use to indicate a state of being I am afraid that I’m in trouble.

21.18 Omitted Words

Some languages, especially those that make greater use of inflection, do not include all the sentence parts that English includes. Take special care to include those English parts that you might not be used to including in your native language. The following table shows some of these words that are needed in English but not in other languages.

Sentence Parts Language Issues
Articles Neither Chinese nor Arabic includes articles, such as a and an, so people with Chinese or Arabic as a first language have to take great care to learn to use articles correctly.
Verbs Many languages have verb tense setups that vary from English, so most new English learners have to be very careful to include auxiliary verbs properly. For example, Arabic does not include the verb “to be,” so native speakers of Arabic who learn English have to take special care to learn the usage of “to be.” An Arabic speaker might say, “The girl happy,” instead of, “The girl is happy.”
Subjects Spanish and Japanese do not include a subject in every sentence, but every English sentence requires a subject (except in commands where the subject you is understood: “Go get the box”).
Expletives Inverted English sentences can cause problems for many new English speakers. For example, you could say, “An apple is in the refrigerator.” But in typical English, you would more likely say, “There is an apple in the refrigerator.” This version is an inverted sentence, and “there” is an expletive. Many new English learners might invert the sentence without adding the expletive and say, “Is an apple in the refrigerator.”
Plurals Neither Chinese nor Thai includes plurals, but English does. So many new English learners have to take great care to differentiate between singular and plural forms and to use them at the appropriate times.
Subject pronouns In Spanish, the subject pronoun is often not used, so Spanish speakers learning English will often omit the subject pronoun, saying, “Am hungry,” instead of, “I am hungry.”

21.19 Not and Other Negative Words

Figure 21.4

To form a negative in English, you have to add a negative word to the sentence. Some of the negative words in English are shown in the blue arrow. Typically, you should place the negative word before the main verb.

I was barely awake when I heard you come home.

Kurt is not going with us.

In casual English, it is common to form contractions, or shortened combined words, with the auxiliary or linking verb and the word not. Contractions are typically not acceptable in very formal writing but are becoming more and more common in certain academic and public contexts.

I haven’t heard that before.

Jill isn’t my cousin.

Using two negative words in the same sentence changes the meaning of the negative words to positive, thus supporting the common saying “Two negatives make a positive.” Think of it as being similar to multiplying two negative numbers and getting a positive number. Double negatives are often used in extremely casual talk but never in professional or academic settings.

Example

Correct: I didn’t hear anything.

Incorrect: I didn’t hear nothing. (The two negatives change to a positive, so the sentence technically means “I heard something.”)

21.20 Idioms

Idioms are informal, colorful language. Although their intent is to add interest to the English language, they also add a lot of confusion since their intended meanings are not aligned with their literal meanings. In time, you will learn the idioms that your acquaintances use. Until then, reading lists of idioms, such as the following, might prove helpful. Just remember that when a person says something that seems to make no sense at all, an idiom might be involved. Also, keep in mind that this list is just a very small sampling of the thousands of idiomatic expressions that occur in English, as happens with any language.

Idiom Intended Meaning
A little bird told me. I know some information, and I’d rather not say where I heard it.
Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. Don’t decide before you have all the facts.
Don’t jump out of your skin. Don’t get overly excited.
Go fly a kite. What you are saying doesn’t make sense.
Hank’s got some major-league problems. Hank has some serious problems.
Nothing ventured, nothing gained. You can’t succeed if you don’t try.
People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. You should not criticize others for faults that you also have, or since you aren’t perfect, you should not criticize others.
They are joined at the hip. They are always together and/or think alike.
We’ve got it made in the shade. Everything is working out just right.
What does John Q. Public say? What does the average person think?
You’re crazy. Your words do not make sense.

21.21 Spelling Tips

Spelling is a vital part of your written English skills. Your spelling needs to include both an understanding of general spelling rules and a mastery of common words that you will use often. You can visit Chapter 19 "Mechanics", Section 19.1 "Mastering Commonly Misspelled Words" for an overview of general English spelling rules. The following are some of the most common words you will need to spell listed in categories.

Days and Months Time Directions
  • Monday
  • Tuesday
  • Wednesday
  • Thursday
  • Friday
  • Saturday
  • Sunday
  • January
  • February
  • March
  • April
  • May
  • June
  • July
  • August
  • September
  • October
  • November
  • December
  • second
  • minute
  • hour
  • day
  • week
  • month
  • year
  • decade
  • century
  • millennium
  • moment
  • left
  • right
  • straight
  • east
  • west
  • north
  • south
  • far
  • near
  • next to
  • up
  • down
Grocery Lists General Shopping Lists Family Words
  • apples
  • asparagus
  • bananas
  • beans
  • bread
  • butter
  • cabbage
  • carrots
  • celery
  • cheese
  • chicken
  • cucumber
  • eggs
  • ham
  • hamburger
  • fish
  • lamb
  • lettuce
  • milk
  • pork chops
  • roast
  • soda
  • tortillas
  • bath soap
  • deodorant
  • dish soap
  • floss
  • shampoo
  • toilet bowl cleaner
  • toothpaste
  • window cleaner
  • aunt
  • brother
  • father/dad
  • grandfather
  • grandmother
  • husband
  • mother/mom
  • sister
  • uncle
  • wife
Services Words for Packing to Move Math Words Measurement
  • barber
  • dentist
  • doctor
  • hair dresser
  • lawyer
  • nurse
  • pharmacist
  • teacher
  • bathroom
  • bedroom
  • dining room
  • family room
  • garage
  • kitchen
  • laundry room
  • living room
  • add
  • subtract
  • multiply
  • divide
  • more
  • less
  • sum
  • difference
  • equals
  • plus
  • total
  • inch (in.)
  • foot (ft.)
  • yard (yd.)
  • mile (mi.)
  • millimeter (mm)
  • centimeter (cm)
  • kilometer (km)
  • cup
  • quart (qu.)
  • gallon (gal.)
  • teaspoon (tsp.)
  • tablespoon (tb.)
Holidays Common Names
  • New Year’s Day
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Day
  • Valentine’s Day
  • St. Patrick’s Day
  • Mother’s Day
  • Memorial Day
  • Flag Day
  • Father’s Day
  • Fourth of July
  • Labor Day
  • Halloween
  • Columbus Day
  • Thanksgiving
  • Christmas
  • Barbara
  • Elizabeth
  • Jennifer
  • Linda
  • Maria
  • Mary
  • Patricia
  • Susan
  • Adam
  • David
  • James
  • John
  • Michael
  • Richard
  • Robert
  • William
  • Anderson
  • Brown
  • Davis
  • Garcia
  • Harris
  • Jackson
  • Johnson
  • Jones
  • Martin
  • Miller
  • Moore
  • Smith
  • Taylor
  • Thomas
  • White
  • Wilson

21.22 American Writing Styles, Argument, and Structure

Your original language has its own structures, formats, and cultural assumptions that are likely natural to you but perhaps different from those of English. The following broad guidelines underlie basic American English and US academic writing.

  • Citing sources: Some languages and cultures do not consider citing sources of ideas to be of paramount importance. In US academic situations, however, failing to cite sources of ideas and text is referred to as plagiarism and can result in serious ramifications, including failing grades, damaged reputations, school expulsions, and job loss.
  • Introducing the topic early: Unlike some languages, American English typically presents the topic early in a paper.
  • Staying on topic: Although some languages view diversions from the topic as adding interest and depth, American English is focused and on topic.
  • Writing concisely: Some languages hold eloquent, flowing language in high esteem. Consequently, texts in these languages are often long and elaborate. American English, on the other hand, prefers concise, to-the-point wording.
  • Constructing arguments: US academic writing often involves argument building. To this end, writers use transitions to link ideas, evidence to support claims, and relatively formal writing to ensure clarity.