This is “Clauses and Phrases”, section 1.15 (from appendix 1) from the book Writers' Handbook (v. 1.0).
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Clauses include both subjects and verbs that work together as a single unit. When they form stand-alone sentences, they’re called independent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone or can be used with other clauses and phrases. A dependent clause also includes both a subject and a verb, but it must combine with an independent clause to form a complete sentence.
|Types of Dependent Clauses||Descriptions||Examples|
|Adverb clause||Serves as an adverb; tells when, how, why, where, under what condition, to what degree, how often, or how much||To avoid sunburn, she plastered her body with sunscreen.|
|Noun clause||Serves as a noun when attached to a verb||That she would win the race seemed quite likely.|
|She thought that she would win the race.|
|Adjective clause (also called a relative clause)||Begins with a relative pronoun (that, who, whom, whose, which) or a relative adverb (when, where, why); functions as an adjective; attaches to a noun; has both a subject and a verb; tells what kind, how many, or which one||The day that he lost his watch was an unlucky day.*|
|The house where they lived is gone.|
|Appositive clause||Functions as an appositive by restating a noun or noun-related verb in clause form; begins with that; typical nouns involved include possibilities such as assumption, belief, conviction, idea, knowledge, and theory||The idea that Josie will someday be taller than me is crazy.|
|*In some instances, the relative pronoun or adverb can be implied (e.g., “The day he lost his watch was an unlucky day”).|
Phrases are groups of words that work together as a single unit but do not have a subject or a verb. English includes five basic kinds of phrases.
|Types of Phrases||Descriptions||Examples|
|Noun phrase||Multiple words serving as a noun||Darcy ate a ham sandwich.|
|Verb phrase||Used as the verb in sentences that are in the progressive and perfect tenses||The class should have started a half-hour earlier.|
|Prepositional phrase||Begins with a preposition (covered in more depth in Section 21.9 "Gerunds and Infinitives")||Work will be easier after the holiday rush.|
|Adjective phrase||Functions as an adjective; might include prepositional phrases and/or nouns||My brother is very tall and handsome.|
|Adverb phrase||Functions as an adverb; might include prepositional phrases and/or multiple adverbs||Let’s go walking after dinner.|
|Ignacia walked wearily and unsteadily.|