This is “Singulars and Plurals”, section 1.5 (from appendix 1) from the book Writers' Handbook (v. 1.0).
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English count nouns have singular and plural forms. Typically, these nouns are formed by adding -s or -es. Words that end in -ch, -sh, or -s usually require the addition of -es to form the plural. Atypical plurals are formed in various ways, such as those shown in the following table.
|Singular Nouns||Plural Nouns|
|dog||dogs (-s added)|
|table||tables (-s added)|
|peach||peaches (-es added)|
|wish||wishes (-es added)|
|kiss||kisses (-es added)|
Proper nouns are typically either singular or plural. Plural proper nouns usually have no singular form, and singular proper nouns usually have no plural form.
|Singular Proper Nouns||Plural Proper Nouns|
Noncount nouns typically have only one form that is basically a singular form. To quantify them, you can add a preceding phrase.
|Noncount Nouns||Sentences with Noncount Nouns and Quantifying Phrases|
|gas||We put twelve gallons of gas in the car this morning.|
|anguish||After years of anguish, he finally found happiness.|