This is “Inserting Numbers into Text”, section 19.4 from the book Writers' Handbook (v. 1.0).
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Proper writing of numbersA numeral written in words or in digits (e.g., seven, 88). in text is rather simple as long as you are familiar with the general guidelines and the exceptions to those guidelines.
APA styleA widely accepted style of preparing manuscripts and documentation developed by the American Psychological Association. calls for writing out numbers from one to nine in words and using numeralsA number written in digits (e.g., 245, 49). for all other numbers. The Chicago Manual of Style calls for spelling out zero through one hundred as well as certain round multiples such as five thousand or six hundred. MLA styleA widely accepted style of preparing manuscripts and documentation developed by the Modern Language Association., however, requires that all numbers that are composed of one or two words be written out in words (e.g., one hundred, thirty-six, five million), and all numbers with more than two words be written in numerals (137; 6,482; 3,500,000). There are two general exceptions in MLA:
Exceptions to the general guidelines are logical, and they help avoid awkward situations. These exceptions are in place in all citation formats and style sheets.
In a situation where abbreviations are used, use numerals, not number words, with the abbreviations.
Within text, you can use either words or numbers to write the time of day. Within a document, be consistent in your choice.
Use words to write months and numerals to write years. When the month, day, and year are all included, also use a numeral to write the day. If the year is not included, you can use either a numeral or a word to write the day. Express decades in numerals or words.
Use numerals to write sports’ scores and sports’ statistics.
To avoid confusion when using two numbers side by side, spell out one of the numbers and use a numeral for the other one. Generally, you should write out the number with fewer letters and leave the longer one as a numeral.
Generally, you should use numerals in addresses and phone numbers. One exception is that, when a street is a numeral, you can either use the numeral or spell out the word.
Numbers that are part of proper nouns should always be written as they appear.
Use numerals to indicate page, volume, chapter, unit, and section numbers as well as other divisions that are used to organize written text.
As a rule, numerals are used to express decimals and percentages.
Use numerals when writing identification numbers, such as the serial number for a computer, a driver’s license number, or a social security number.
When a money amount is briefly mentioned in a piece of writing that is not necessarily about money, spell the money amount out. However, if you are writing about money or are writing text that will reference money amounts on multiple occasions, use numerals and symbols.
When writing numerals, use a decimal point to separate dollars and cents and use a comma to divide numbers of one thousand or more into units of three digits. Do not use these punctuation marks when writing numbers in words.
|45,329||forty-five thousand three hundred twenty-nine|
|$12.43||twelve dollars and forty-three cents|