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Chapter 13 Writing on and for the Web

Writing in the Digital World

The digital world has permanently altered written communication. Copying and pasting ease the sharing and transferring of large blocks of text. Independent and joint editing of text is much easier and much less time consuming. Searching for specific parts of a long text is quick and easy. Checking for plagiarism takes only a few seconds. Multimodal compositionsAn emerging type of composition that incorporates a variety of modes of delivery (e.g., audio or visual content) into written material. can be created by incorporating visual and auditory material into written texts. The following sections provide a general overview of composing in web-based environments, creating websites, collaborating online, creating e-portfolios, and using web links.

13.1 Composing in Web-Based Environments

Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize situations where you might compose for the web.
  2. Differentiate between casual and formal online writings.
  3. Understand proper and improper online writing based on each individual situation.

Both as a student and in other aspects of your life, you are likely to write information and publish it on the Internet. Some examples of possible Internet writing that many people take part in are chat rooms, social networking sites like Facebook, voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) platforms like Skype, e-mail, mobile cellular texts, online distance-learning coursework (such as assignments, group projects, and discussion forums), blogs and responses to blogs, instant messages, wikis, nonacademic discussion forums, web-based memorial sites, responses to online newspaper articles, and job applications. Given that few of these media or genres existed a generation ago, it’s patently absurd to argue that “people don’t write (or read) anymore,” and it’s difficult to argue that writing teachers shouldn’t try to account for what’s at stake when you write on and for the web.

Like every other kind of written communication, how you write on the web depends on the purpose of the specific situation. In reality, you’ve probably developed a pretty good system for running your web-based communication through an almost unconscious version of the statement of purpose questions from Chapter 5 "Planning". If you have an unlimited text plan and maintain at least one profile on a social networking site, you concern yourself with matters of voice, message, audience, tone, attitude, and reception hundreds of times a day. At the very least, students and teachers ought to be trying to learn together how to apply or translate the sophisticated rhetorical strategies you use in your casual communication to your more serious academic and professional endeavors.

Because you are often multitasking while texting or using the web and because of the speed and convenience of electronic communication, this realm is prone to carelessness. In casual situations, rules are minimal and you can use very casual language that includes abbreviations, slang, and shortcuts. Your use of a casual tone depends solely on whether your audience will understand what you are saying. Writing for school or work does not fall into the casual category. In these situations, you cannot use abbreviations, slang, and shortcuts. In fact, you need to use proper punctuation, grammar, and capitalization. You should also use traditional writing rules and a more formal tone when responding to diverse populations and serious situations.

Whether writing in a casual or formal situation, always be aware of the population that has access to your content. Also keep in mind that even if you are writing on a semiprivate venue like a class-wide course management system or on an invitation-only wiki, your digital text can easily be copied by someone with access and forwarded to someone without access. So don’t write anything that could embarrass or cause problems for you or others.

Due to the nonprivate nature of the Internet, you should not provide full contact information. Depending on the situation, you might choose to use your full name (such as in an online class or on a memorial condolence site) or you might choose to use a pseudonym (such as in a response to a blog or to an online newspaper article). Only give your phone number and address when you are on very secure sites. Never post your social security number online. If you have a legitimate request for your social security number, call and give it over the telephone.

Key Takeaways

  • In the online environment, casual situations call for different writing techniques than do formal situations.
  • Do not post information on the Internet you do not want to be public.
  • In the online environment, take care to protect your personal information. Share your full name only in formal situations. Provide your phone number and address only on secure sites. And do not post your social security number online at all.

Exercises

  1. Examine your profile on a social networking site like Facebook. (Chances are, you have one.) Run your page, posts, and profile through the statement of purpose questions in Chapter 5 "Planning" on message, audience, voice, attitude, reception, and tone. Now do the same with sites of five close friends.
  2. Scroll through the text messages you’ve sent and received in the last week. What do you notice about how you manage your tone, attitude, and reception differently depending on the message you are trying to convey, the audience you are trying to reach, and the voice you are trying to project?
  3. Identify each of the following as a forum that could be considered casual or formal and thus worthy of a casual or formal tone:

    1. chat room
    2. social networking site like Facebook
    3. e-mail message
    4. instant message
    5. wiki
    6. memorial condolence site
    7. an employment opportunity site
  4. Rewrite the following ideas in your words in two different ways: one that would work for a casual online post and one that would work for a formal online post.

    1. An explanation of your plans for later this afternoon
    2. A description of your college plans
    3. An overview of a topic that interests you

13.2 Creating Websites

Learning Objectives

  1. Understand how to make a website aesthetically pleasing and well organized.
  2. Understand steps to take to make a website work well.
  3. Understand how to make a website accomplish its purpose.

You may have occasion to create websites for professional, personal, or academic reasons. Whether you create a site to supplement a résumé, to serve as a common, virtual family meeting place, or to showcase individual or collaborative work you’ve done for a class, you should follow some basic guidelines to make sure your website is aesthetically pleasing and well organized, so that it functions well and accomplishes its purpose.

Making a Website Aesthetically Pleasing

Use relevant photos, graphics, and font variations to give your site interest. Leave plenty of white space. A crowded web page is not inviting. Use an easily readable font and font size with ample leading. Small tight text is hard to read and many Internet searchers will skip such a site and move on to the abundance of other choices. Take care when choosing background and font colors. Make sure your background does not engulf the text making it hard to read. As a rule, make your background light and your text dark. Take care when choosing background effects. A very busy background can detract from your content.

Making a Website Well Organized

Plan for little or no scrolling. Instead include clearly marked navigation links to move to different parts of the information. Include navigation links to all parts of the website from all pages so a person never feels stuck on a page. Design an overall look that holds from page to page to give your website consistency. Use an easily recognizable format for navigation links so that they clearly stand out.

Making a Website Work Well

Use images that are between forty and one hundred kilobytes to ensure clear images that are easily and quickly loaded on most people’s computers. Since one hundred kilobytes is the maximum suggested size, you will have your best luck if you stay well below that level. Match your level of use of technology tools to your needs. Don’t add features just to try to make your site impressive. Remember that the more features you add, the more likely it is that someone will have trouble with your site. Some people’s computers will have trouble with very involved opening pages that include audio and video. If you choose such an opening page, also include an override button for people who can’t or don’t want to view the opening page. Make sure all the links and paths are very obvious and that they all work smoothly.

Making a Website Accomplish Its Purpose

Make sure the home page is uncluttered and clearly states the purpose of the website. This is the main chance you have of attracting attention. Make the website as visual as possible. The more quickly a person can glance through web content, the more likely the person is to take in the information. You can make a site visual by including subheadings that stand out, relevant images, short blocks of text, white space between blocks of text, and numbered or bulleted lists. Keep the website up to date. Depending on the content and purpose of the website, keeping it up to date could be a daily, weekly, or monthly chore. Consider that a site that is out of date ceases to be visited. Include a contact link so viewers can reach you. Remember that anyone with Internet can access your site. Take care with the information you post. Always assume that your instructors, employers, parents, or friends will see it.

Key Takeaways

  • You can make website aesthetically pleasing by including relevant images, white space, easily readable fonts, background and font colors that work well together, and a nondistracting background.
  • You can create a website that works well by keeping image sizes small, using only needed features, leading off with a simple opening page (or including an override button on a complicated opening page), and creating navigation links that are obvious and work smoothly.
  • You can create a well-organized website by minimizing scrolling, using clearly marked navigation links, including navigation links on all web pages, and using a consistent appearance throughout.
  • You can make sure your website accomplishes its purpose by starting with an uncluttered home page that clearly presents the website’s purpose, making the site visual, keeping the site up to date, including your contact information, and remembering that the site can be viewed by the public.

Exercises

  1. Choose an existing website and evaluate it based on the standards outlined in this section. Rate its aesthetics, its organization, its functionality, and the extent to which it achieves its intended purpose.
  2. In a Word file, create a mock front page for a website and describe plans for linked pages.
  3. Create an actual website based on your plans in Exercise 2. For the purposes of this exercise, free sites like Weebly, Wix, Google Sites, PBWorks, or Wikispaces will suffice to get you started. In a designer’s memo, discuss the choices you made to enhance the site’s aesthetics, organization, and functionality and the extent to which it achieves its intended purpose.

13.3 Collaborating Online

Learning Objectives

  1. Understand general group work guidelines.
  2. Identify technology factors in an online collaborative site.
  3. Recognize special social aspects of working in an online group.

Both education and business regularly take advantage of online collaboration. In education, students are often asked to collaborate online to discuss course readings, to work on group projects, or to edit each other’s work. In business, employees often work together online to brainstorm and develop ideas and projects. The online environment allows people who are in different physical locations to work together virtually. In addition, online collaboration sites allow everyone to keep track of each participant’s contributions.

Some basic etiquette rules apply to all online collaboration situations. You will notice that many of the rules hold true for any group work situation. (See Chapter 11 "Academic Writing", Section 11.3 "Collaborating on Academic Writing Projects" for more on general guidelines for working collaboratively in academic settings.)

The Role of Technology in Group Project Design

Technology has introduced a whole array of platforms and tools for group projects. Course management systemsA web-based learning environment that organizes the work of a course (e.g., Blackboard)., such as Moodle, Blackboard, or eCampus, tend to excel as spaces to post course materials and external links, to conduct group discussion boardsA digital space for brief posts and responses by a group of students, usually set up in a course management system by the instructor., to provide for electronic submission of essays, and to manage records like grades, calendars, announcements, and deadlines.

The following is an example of how a richer kind of threaded small-group class discussion about possible connections between video games and violent behavior can be conducted online, even in a face-to-face class. This discussion was conducted after each of the seven students in a writing group had posted their initial response to a couple of opposing readings on the subject. In order to keep the online conversation going, the students were asked to respond to at least one group member’s initial post, using the following questions:

  1. What patterns do you notice about your group members’ or classmates’ responses to the readings?
  2. Where do you notice differences in opinion between your responses and those of your group members or classmates, or among their responses?
  3. What are any possible clarifications and interpretations of specific moments from texts that group members or classmates seem to be having trouble with?
  4. Which texts (or which aspects of texts) still warrant special attention before the class moves on to the next unit of assigned readings? Be specific about what you want your group members or classmates to discuss. What additional questions do you have about the readings?
  5. What ideas do you have for ways specific group members or classmates could use their responses to develop their understanding of the questions into a full-fledged essay?

Do you think the following threaded discussion opens up new avenues of exploration for the students involved? Think about how the debate progressed in this online environment, and consider how it might have operated differently if conducted face-to-face in a traditional, oral class discussion.

  • Bill: In response to Amber’s post: Do you think that violence in video games causes the violent action or do you think that it just adds fuel to the fire? I play violent video games, but I don’t go around hitting people and blowing things up. I was in the Marines for the last five years and never shot anyone. So my belief is that these people are already messed up in the head. I think the lack of morals in teens comes from parents not being able to punish their children as they see fit resulting in a generation of misbehaved misfits who have grown up undisciplined. My suggestion would be for parents to monitor their children’s use of video games and explain the difference between games and real life.
  • Amber: As I read other people’s posts I see most people say no. Well I still stand by my opinion on the whole thing. I didn’t say that everyone who plays violent video games will make them a violent person. I just think that violent video games have the potential to play a role in children’s minds today in the United States. Not every person who plays these violent video games will have a negative effect on their minds. I don’t think that people should stop playing violent video games, but I do think that young children today should not play them as much or until they are old enough. I will always think that violent video games will lead to violence in a child’s mind because they see it on these games played.
  • Adam: Having read other students’ posts, I can tell that there are those who say yes and those who say no, but to those who say yes I have to ask, Would you rather someone release their anger and rage on real people or virtual avatars that have no feelings, have no sense of pain, feel no fear, or anything? All I’m asking is, If there are going to be people with violent behaviors, would you rather the result be virtual or real?
  • Brandy: I noticed that several of my other group members noticed the lack of concrete evidence on the yes side of the argument. Two of them, I believe, brought up something that I had forgotten could be possible. It may be that violent games children play bring out the violent and aggressive side in them that already existed but lay somewhat dormant, for lack of a better description. I can’t imagine a mentally stable child being driven out of his or her balanced mind-set of some sort of common sense and morality and a distinction between reality and a virtual world simply and solely by a violent game. If anything I believe it would, as Jamal said, “desensitize a person,” but not turn that child into an aggressive child.
  • Malcolm: Violent video games will be a problem when presented to individuals who already have a problem waiting to come out. A hundred years ago, without video games around, there was still influence from books to trigger acts of violence. Not everyone that read books found the desire to act violently, but some people found glorification of violence in books, enough for it to suggest to them that it was the right thing to do. This is no different from video games today.
  • Jamal: As my classmate, Amber, brought up, there could be a negative impact on young children. My thought, though, is that the level of reality that the game takes on could be a factor. Games that are trying very hard to look real and have all the lifelike components of war, gang life, or even mercenaries could be a little over the top for some ages. It is the same reason you do not let an eight-year-old watch SAW or something like that. They are unable to process that kind of information without having a nightmare or at least looking under the bed.
  • Becky: After reflecting more on the issue, and everyone’s responses, I’m also unable to say yes or no to the argument. I still don’t see any value to these kinds of games and think they serve no positive purpose, but I can’t confidently say that violent video games lead directly to violent actions. There are just too many other factors that require recognition. Just as the no responses claim that those committing violent acts are already “messed up” and cannot differentiate between right and wrong because they were not taught so, the same idea can be flipped to suggest that violent video players who were taught certain values will not commit violent acts. Where is the control group? I don’t see how either side can present a solid story with so many variables.

Because course management systems are not really designed for collaborative composition courses, they’re not really ideal for group writing projects. WikisAn interactive, shared website featuring content that can be edited by many users., another type of collaborative technology tool, are beginning to replace course management systems for certain kinds of collaboration because they can make group work much more convenient, visible, and meaningful. Professors can set up a wiki as a free online collaborative platform that offers workspace for class-wide group or individual projects. Within a site, individuals can have private workspaces to which other students do not have access unless the site “owner” invites them. Students can use a wiki to gather notes and compile a writing project from beginning to end. Within a wiki, students can save all versions of a draft allowing for retrieval of previous information. Being able to save different versions also allows multiple students to edit, for example, Pete’s draft so that Pete can then access all the edits and choose the changes he wishes to make.

Since each student has a private log-in and password, wikis can easily keep track of who made what changes and when the changes were made. You can even use the settings on your wiki account to have it send you an e-mail whenever someone adds something to your space. Students and teachers can also upload files and place links on the wiki to relevant materials elsewhere on the Internet, such as to an American Psychological Association (APA) or Modern Language Association (MLA) citation builder. Wikis also offer a platform for publishing the final version of a project for viewing by the instructor, other classmates, and even the general public, if desired.

Online Collaborative Sites and Group Projects

Group work is often lopsided and unfair—a few tend to do most of the work. Do your fair share. You would be ill advised to try shirking your part of the work in an online situation since the collaboration program will keep track of each participant’s contributions.

Most sites will maintain all versions of a document or file being drafted collaboratively. As a rule, you should always work in the most current version unless the group mutually decides to revert to a previous version.

Determine which group member is best able to complete different technology aspects of the project, such as scanning, uploading, and creating diagrams. If all members of the group are expected to perform certain technological tasks, make sure the learning curve is not too steep by writing explicit directions. Discussing such aspects up front will make the project go more smoothly.

Social Aspects of Working in an Online Group Situation

If the group seems to be going around in circles, consider a conference call (over the computer or by telephone). With an in-person (or at least synchronousTaking place at the same time.) conversation, you can often straighten out issues that are difficult to handle through chains of e-mails.

On the other hand, if you need to talk to only one member of the group, do so through e-mail. Save the group site for communication intended for the whole group.

Keep in mind that written words do not include voice intonations or facial expressions and are thus more easily misunderstood than are in-person spoken words. If a group member’s comment strikes you the wrong way, give the person the benefit of the doubt instead of being defensive.

Key Takeaways

  • Most standard group work guidelines apply to online collaboration.
  • Some technology factors that affect online collaboration include the tracking of participating individuals, the need to work in the current version of a project, and an awareness that members of the group most adept at technology should be tapped to handle or teach those aspects.
  • Online collaboration creates some unique social issues, such as general confusion that requires a face-to-face or phone conversation, more narrowly private issues that require the use of e-mail, or easily misunderstood communication that requires giving other group members the benefit of the doubt.

Exercise

Respond to each of the following issues that tend to come up in online writing groups.

  1. One member posts this message: “This project is not working. We should start over completely.” You think that the project is a good one but that the group needs to do more in-depth planning. How would you respond to the post?
  2. One member’s contributions are ridden with typos and spelling errors. What would you say or do?
  3. Both you and another member said you could do the scanning, so you split the scanning between the two of you. The scans are due tomorrow and you are having trouble getting your scanner to work. What would you say or do?
  4. A group member posts this remark: “What were you thinking? I’m not sure what the page you just posted even means.” How would you respond?

13.4 Creating an E-portfolio

Learning Objectives

  1. Recognize that many aspects of a hard-copy portfolio are applicable to an online portfolio.
  2. Understand situations that are unique to online portfolios.
  3. Choose components to create your portfolio.

Just a few years ago, a portfolio, or collection of your work, would most likely have been a collection of printed papers arranged in a file folder or hand-bound into a booklet. Today you are more likely to create an e-portfolioA collection of work in digital format, usually accessible to others online., a digital collection of your work that is usually accessible to others online. Whether paper or digital, the purpose of a portfolio remains for you to showcase and reflect upon your skills.

General Portfolio Guidelines

As with any other kind of communication, base your portfolio planning on your reasons for building one. Run the portfolio through the statement of purpose questions from Chapter 5 "Planning". For example, you might design a portfolio to apply for admission or scholarships to colleges, to apply for a job, to network with other professionals in your field, to complete a school assignment, to collect your artistic work, or to explore a personal interest. The following guidelines are useful for all portfolios, regardless of whether they are designed to meet an academic, professional, aesthetic, or social purpose:

  • Consider carefully your choices of what to include (known as artifactsAn individual piece in a portfolio.) and choose those that showcase the most impressive variety of your skills. If you are a writer, showcase different writing skills or a progression in the development of your writing skills (showing “before” and “after” drafts). If you are a salesperson, showcase different types of sales accomplishments.
  • Keep the number of choices under ten in an employment portfolio so that a prospective employer could reasonably look at all the options. If you have multiple categories, such as writing samples, work accomplishments, and volunteer experiences, you could consider having up to ten items within each category.
  • Read through all the choices to make sure you are 100-percent pleased about the content. Do not rely on memory to tell you that an item is OK to use.
  • Label and date each selection.
  • Create an explanation of each chosen item.
  • Make sure all your selected items are free of errors.
  • Arrange your selections from most to least impressive unless you have a reason to arrange them differently, such as in chronological order, keeping in mind that someone might start through your portfolio and not finish it.

Electronic Portfolio Guidelines

Follow these guidelines to take better advantage of the forms, functions, and features an online environment can bring to portfolios:

  • Create an introductory page with linksA clickable text or image that is placed within digital text and has the ability to reroute you to another location; short for hyperlink. to the other pages. Make sure the introductory page is short enough to minimize scrolling.
  • Consider establishing or incorporating some kind of social presence (perhaps with an appropriate photo or with an audio or video greeting) on the introductory page. Make sure your tone (the relationship between your portfolio’s voice and your audience) achieves an appropriate level of formality, depending on the working relationship you already have with your audience.
  • Include a one-line description of each link as a preintroduction to the portfolio item when you list the links on the introductory page.
  • Choose whether to include multimediaContent made up of more than one medium (e.g., text, images, audio, and video). pieces, such as video and audio clips, depending on the capabilities of the site where you are posting your portfolio.
  • Convert each page or file to a PDF fileA digital file format where all components are locked in place; short for portable document file. or a JPEGA digital image format that is compatible with many software formats; an acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group. so that you can be assured that the formatting will remain fixed. After you create each PDF file or JPEG, open it to make sure it converted properly.
  • Traverse your e-portfolio thoroughly when you’re finished building it to check out all the links and make sure everything is working and looks OK. Then ask a friend to do the same on a different computer. Ideally you should road test the portfolio from both a PC and a Mac platform. By road testing, you are effectively anticipating your portfolio’s reception (the relationship between your audience and the message you are conveying).
  • Include a link to a self-profile as well as a link to your résumé.
  • Keep your e-portfolio up to date. This task is especially important if your e-portfolio is posted where others can access it without your knowledge.

Key Takeaways

  • The contents and design (or voice) of your portfolio will depend on its message and audience.
  • The general purpose of all portfolios is to showcase your skills, so you should choose your artifacts accordingly.
  • You should carefully read through all pieces of your portfolio to make sure they are free of errors and convey your intended message, so that your portfolio will be received favorably.
  • As a rule, convert all pieces to PDF files or JPEGs so that the format is locked and you can insert them into your portfolio tool.
  • Add multimedia components to your portfolio by incorporating images, videos, and audio clips.
  • Add information about you, including a self-profile and a résumé.
  • When finished building your portfolio, traverse the entire site to ensure all the links are working and everything looks as expected.

Exercises

  1. Say you were going to create an e-portfolio to use in a job search. In order of significance, make a list of ten items you could include.
  2. Say you are going to create an e-portfolio to showcase your educational experiences. Create an introductory page for your e-portfolio.
  3. With your writing group, find five samples of e-portfolios online. Create a compare-and-contrast chart detailing the aspects you like and do not like. Include links to the URLs of the five e-portfolios in the left-hand column of the chart and be prepared to lead the class through a tour of your findings.

13.5 Using Web Links Effectively

Learning Objectives

  1. Know what a link is, what a typical link looks like, and what the purposes for links are.
  2. Be aware of how you can create links in different situations.
  3. Recognize whether a link has longevity.

Links are placed within digital texts to reroute readers to other locations. They have a wide range of purposes based on where and why they are used. You can use links to organize a page, to save space on a page, to add interest to your text, to incorporate someone else’s ideas into your work, to provide conveniences for your reader, and to complement text in other creative ways. Most often, links are in blue font that is underlined once or twice. You can, however, choose to present links in other ways, such as by using buttons, images, or nonunderlined text. Your main consideration when making a style choice for a link is that it be immediately recognizable as a link. Here are some common types of links:

Where Link Is Used Why Link Is Used Examples
In a Microsoft Word file To quickly move to other parts of the file, such as from a table of contents Chapter 1 "Writing to Think and Writing to Learn"
In a Microsoft Word file To open a website http://www.gone.2012books.lardbucket.org
In a Microsoft Word file To open an e-mail window with the linked e-mail in the “To” line

pwilson@swbell.net

OR

Send Paul a message

In a blog To alert readers to related information that is on other websites

http://www.gone.2012books.lardbucket.org

OR

(an image or photo alone or with words)

In an e-mail To open a website, video, data file, or PowerPoint

http://www.gone.2012books.lardbucket.org

OR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9WXpUjKexwk

OR

JanesData.docx

OR

wildday.pptx

On a website To lead readers to other parts of the website

About Us

On a website To alert readers to related information at other addresses

http://www.gone.2012books.lardbucket.org

OR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9WXpUjKexwk

You can typically copy and paste a web address or an e-mail address into your main text to make it a hyperlinkA clickable text or image that is placed within digital text and has the ability to reroute you to another location. automatically, or you can link to a website using the Insert menu of your word processing program. You can choose to insert a bookmarkA link from one part of a document to another part of the same document. (e.g., internal links from one section to another section of the same file) instead of a hyperlink. Whether linking to a website, an e-mail address, another part of the same document, or another file entirely, you will be given the option of naming the link so that it appears the way you want it in your main text. Remember that a link to another file will not work for outside readers unless the file to which you are linking is actually on the web.

When you choose to create a link to a website, use your best judgment to determine if the link will remain intact for the duration of your need. In other words, if you are putting a link in a paper to turn in for a class assignment, you need to feel relatively certain that the link will remain active until your paper is graded. On the other hand, if you are inserting a link into a website or a blog you are producing or managing, you will need to be reasonably certain that the link will be live for a longer period. In such situations, you should periodically make sure the link is still active. Dead linksA link within digital text that when clicked on does not lead to the intended new location. frustrate readers, and they reflect badly on your website’s credibility and currency.

Key Takeaways

  • Links are used in digital text to reroute readers to other locations. You should make links very obvious so readers see them easily. Links are typically blue, underlined text but can be text in other formats, buttons, images, and other options.
  • You can create many links simply by copying and pasting a web address or an e-mail address into your text. Within a software application, you will sometimes have to use the software’s method of link formation.
  • You should do your best to make sure you are not using dead links. Try to choose links that will last as long as you need to use them. Check that a link works when you initially use it. Then, in long-term-use situations such as a website, periodically check that your links are still good.

Exercises

  1. Open a new file on your computer and create these three kinds of links: an internal file link (or bookmark), a website link, and an e-mail link. Make one of the links in standard blue, underlined format, one in a different text format, and one in an image format.
  2. Find at least three links that you could place in each column of this table.

    Links That Will Likely Only Be Good for a Short Time, Such as Days or Weeks Links That Will Likely Be Good for up to a Year Links That Will Likely Be Good on a Long-Term Basis, Such as for Years