This is “Spelling”, section 4.2 from the book Successful Writing (v. 1.0).
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One essential aspect of good writing is accurate spelling. With computer spell checkers, spelling may seem simple, but these programs fail to catch every error. Spell checkers identify some errors, but writers still have to consider the flagged words and suggested replacements. Writers are still responsible for the errors that remain.
For example, if the spell checker highlights a word that is misspelled and gives you a list of alternative words, you may choose a word that you never intended even though it is spelled correctly. This can change the meaning of your sentence. It can also confuse readers, making them lose interest. Computer spell checkers are useful editing tools, but they can never replace human knowledge of spelling rules, homonyms, and commonly misspelled words.
The best way to master new words is to understand the key spelling rules. Keep in mind, however, that some spelling rules carry exceptions. A spell checker may catch these exceptions, but knowing them yourself will prepare you to spell accurately on the first try. You may want to try memorizing each rule and its exception like you would memorize a rhyme or lyrics to a song.
Write i before e except after c, or when pronounced ay like “neighbor” or “weigh.”
When words end in a consonant plus y, drop the y and add an i before adding another ending.
When words end in a vowel plus y, keep the y and add the ending.
Memorize the following exceptions to this rule: day, lay, say, pay = daily, laid, said, paid
When adding an ending that begins with a vowel, such as -able, -ence, -ing, or -ity, drop the last e in a word.
When adding an ending that begins with a consonant, such as -less, -ment, or -ly, keep the last e in a word.
For many words ending in a consonant and an o, add -s when using the plural form.
Add -es to words that end in s, ch, sh, and x.
Identify and correct the nine misspelled words in the following paragraph.
Sherman J. Alexie Jr. was born in October 1966. He is a Spokane/Coeur d’Alene Indian and an American writer, poet, and filmmaker. Alexie was born with hydrocephalus, or water on the brain. This condition led doctors to predict that he would likly suffer long-term brain damage and possibly mental retardation. Although Alexie survived with no mental disabilitys, he did suffer other serious side effects from his condition that plagud him throughout his childhood. Amazingly, Alexie learned to read by the age of three, and by age five he had read novels such as John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Raised on an Indian reservation, Alexie often felt aleinated from his peers due to his avid love for reading and also from the long-term effects of his illness, which often kept him from socializeing with his peers on the reservation. The reading skills he displaid at such a young age foreshadowed what he would later become. Today Alexie is a prolific and successful writer with several story anthologeis to his credit, noteably The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven and The Toughest Indian in the World. Most of his fiction is about contemporary Native Americans who are influenced by pop culture and pow wows and everything in between. His work is sometimes funny but always thoughtful and full of richness and depth. Alexie also writes poetry, novels, and screenplays. His latest collection of storys is called War Dances, which came out in 2009.
Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.
Eight Tips to Improve Spelling Skills
Remember to focus on spelling during the editing and revising step of the writing process. Start with the big ideas such as organizing your piece of writing and developing effective paragraphs, and then work your way down toward the smaller—but equally important—details like spelling and punctuation. To read more about the writing process and editing and revising, see Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?".
HomonymsA word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning. are words that sound like one another but have different meanings.
Principle (noun). A fundamental concept that is accepted as true.
The principle of human equality is an important foundation for all nations.
Principal (noun). The original amount of debt on which interest is calculated.
The payment plan allows me to pay back only the principal amount, not any compounded interest.
Principal (noun). A person who is the main authority of a school.
The principal held a conference for both parents and teachers.
Where, Wear, Ware
Where (adverb). The place in which something happens.
Where is the restaurant?
Wear (verb). To carry or have on the body.
I will wear my hiking shoes when go on a climb tomorrow morning.
Ware (noun). Articles of merchandise or manufacture (usually, wares).
When I return from shopping, I will show you my wares.
Lead (noun). A type of metal used in pipes and batteries.
The lead pipes in my homes are old and need to be replaced.
Led (verb). The past tense of the verb lead.
After the garden, she led the patrons through the museum.
Which (pronoun). Replaces one out of a group.
Which apartment is yours?
Witch (noun). A person who practices sorcery or who has supernatural powers.
She thinks she is a witch, but she does not seem to have any powers.
Peace (noun). A state of tranquility or quiet.
For once, there was peace between the argumentative brothers.
Piece (noun). A part of a whole.
I would like a large piece of cake, thank you.
Passed (verb). To go away or move.
He passed the slower cars on the road using the left lane.
Past (noun). Having existed or taken place in a period before the present.
The argument happened in the past, so there is no use in dwelling on it.
Lessen (verb). To reduce in number, size, or degree.
My dentist gave me medicine to lessen the pain of my aching tooth.
Lesson (noun). A reading or exercise to be studied by a student.
Today’s lesson was about mortgage interest rates.
Patience (noun). The capacity of being patient (waiting for a period of time or enduring pains and trials calmly).
The novice teacher’s patience with the unruly class was astounding.
Patients (plural noun). Individuals under medical care.
The patients were tired of eating the hospital food, and they could not wait for a home-cooked meal.
Sees, Seas, Seize
Sees (verb). To perceive with the eye.
He sees a whale through his binoculars.
Seas (plural noun). The plural of sea, a great body of salt water.
The tidal fluctuation of the oceans and seas are influenced by the moon.
Seize (verb). To possess or take by force.
The king plans to seize all the peasants’ land.
Threw (verb). The past tense of throw.
She threw the football with perfect form.
Through (preposition). A word that indicates movement.
She walked through the door and out of his life.
Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct homonym.
Below is a list of commonly misspelled words. You probably use these words every day in either speaking or writing. Each word has a segment in bold type, which indicates the problem area of the word that is often spelled incorrectly. If you can, use this list as a guide before, during, and after you write.
Use the following two tricks to help you master these troublesome words:
Table 4.1 Commonly Misspelled Words
Identify and correct the ten commonly misspelled words in the following paragraph.
Brooklyn is one of the five boroughs that make up New York City. It is located on the eastern shore of Long Island directly accross the East River from the island of Manhattan. Its beginings stretch back to the sixteenth century when it was founded by the Dutch who originally called it “Breuckelen.” Immedietely after the Dutch settled Brooklyn, it came under British rule. However, neither the Dutch nor the British were Brooklyn’s first inhabitants. When European settlers first arrived, Brooklyn was largely inhabited by the Lenapi, a collective name for several organized bands of Native American people who settled a large area of land that extended from upstate New York through the entire state of New Jersey. They are sometimes referred to as the Delaware Indians. Over time, the Lenapi succumbed to European diseases or conflicts between European settlers or other Native American enemies. Finalley they were pushed out of Brooklyn completely by the British.
In 1776, Brooklyn was the site of the first importent battle of the American Revolution known as the Battle of Brooklyn. The colonists lost this battle, which was led by George Washington, but over the next two years they would win the war, kicking the British out of the colonies once and for all.
By the end of the nineteenth century, Brooklyn grew to be a city in its own right. The completion of the Brooklyn Bridge was an ocasion for celebration; transportation and commerce between Brooklyn and Manhattan now became much easier. Eventually, in 1898, Brooklyn lost its seperate identity as an independent city and became one of five boroughs of New York City. However, in some people’s opinien, the intagration into New York City should have never happened; they though Brooklyn should have remained an independent city.
Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.
In today’s job market, writing e-mails has become a means by which many people find employment. E-mails to prospective employers require thoughtful word choice, accurate spelling, and perfect punctuation. Employers’ inboxes are inundated with countless e-mails daily. If even the subject line of an e-mail contains a spelling error, it will likely be overlooked and someone else’s e-mail will take priority.
The best thing to do after you proofread an e-mail to an employer and run the spell checker is to have an additional set of eyes go over it with you; one of your teachers may be able to read the e-mail and give you suggestions for improvement. Most colleges and universities have writing centers, which may also be able to assist you.
What is your definition of a successful person? Is it based on a person’s profession or is it based on his or her character? Perhaps success means a combination of both. In one paragraph, describe in detail what you think makes a person successful. When you are finished, proofread your work for spelling errors. Exchange papers with a partner and read each other’s work. See if you catch any spelling errors that your partner missed.