This is “Apostrophes”, section 3.5 from the book Successful Writing (v. 1.0).
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An apostrophe (’)A punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction. is a punctuation mark that is used with a noun to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been left out to form a contraction.
An apostrophe and the letter s indicate who or what owns something. To show possession with a singular noun, add ’s.
Jen’s dance routine mesmerized everyone in the room.
The dog’s leash is hanging on the hook beside the door.
Jess’s sister is also coming to the party.
Notice that singular nouns that end in s still take the apostrophe s (’s) ending to show possession.
To show possession with a plural noun that ends in s, just add an apostrophe (’). If the plural noun does not end in s, add an apostrophe and an s (’s).
Plural noun that ends in s: The drummers’ sticks all moved in the same rhythm, like a machine.
Plural noun that does not end in s: The people’s votes clearly showed that no one supported the management decision.
A contractionA word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out. is a word that is formed by combining two words. In a contraction, an apostrophe shows where one or more letters have been left out. Contractions are commonly used in informal writing but not in formal writing.
I do not like ice cream.
I don’t like ice cream.
Notice how the words do and not have been combined to form the contraction don’t. The apostrophe shows where the o in not has been left out.
We will see you later.
We’ll see you later.
Look at the chart for some examples of commonly used contractions.
|it’s||it is, it has|
|she’s||she is, she has|
|there’s||there is, there has|
|who’s||who is, who has|
Be careful not to confuse it’s with its. It’s is a contraction of the words it and is. Its is a possessive pronoun.
It’s cold and rainy outside. (It is cold and rainy outside.)
The cat was chasing its tail. (Shows that the tail belongs to the cat.)
When in doubt, substitute the words it is in a sentence. If sentence still makes sense, use the contraction it’s.
On your own sheet of paper, correct the following sentences by adding apostrophes. If the sentence is correct as it is, write OK.