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Chapter 31 Appendix G: Physical Constants and Conversion Factors

Selected Physical Constants
Atomic mass unit 1 amu = 1.6605389 × 10−24 g
1 g = 6.022142 × 1023 amu
Avogadro’s number N = 6.022142 × 1023/mol
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.380651 × 10−23 J/K
Charge on electron e = 1.6021765 × 10−19 C
Faraday’s constant F = 9.6485338 × 104 C/mol
Gas constant R = 0.0820575 (L atm)/(mol K)
= 8.31447 J/(mol K)
Mass of electron me = 5.485799 × 10−4 amu
= 9.109383 × 10−28 g
Mass of neutron mn = 1.0086649 amu
= 1.6749273 × 10−24 g
Mass of proton mp = 1.0072765 amu
= 1.6726217 × 10−24 g
Pi π = 3.1415927
Planck’s constant h = 6.626069 × 10 −34J s
Speed of light (in vacuum) c = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s (exact)
Useful Conversion Factors and Relationships
Length Energy (derived)
Si unit: meter (m) Si unit: joule (J)
1 km = 0. 62137 mi 1 mi = 528 0  ft = 1 . 6 0 93 km 1 m = 1 .0 936 yd 1 in = 2 . 54 cm  ( exact ) 1 cm = 0. 3937 0  in . 1 Å = 1 0 1 0 m 1 J = 1 N m = 1 ( kg m 2 ) / s 2 1 J = 0. 239 0  cal = 1 V × 1 C 1 cal = 4 . 184 J  ( exact ) 1 eV = 1 . 6 0 2 × 1 0 19 J
Mass Pressure (derived)
SI unit: kilogram (kg) SI unit: pascal (Pa)
1 kg = 2 . 2 0 46 lb 1 lb = 453 . 59 g = 16 oz 1 Pa = 1 N / m 2 = 1 kg / ( m s 2 ) 1 atm  =  101,325 Pa = 76 0  torr = 14 . 7 0  lb / in 2 1 bar = 1 0 5  Pa
Temperature Volume (derived)
Si unit: kelvin (K) SI unit: cubic meter (m 3 )
0  K = 273 . 15 ° C = 459 . 67 ° F K = ° C + 273 . 15 ° C ° C = 5 9   ( ° F 32 ° ) ° F = 9 5 ° C + 32 1 L = 1 0 3  m 3 = 1 dm 3 = 1 0 3 cm 3 1 gal  =  4 qt = 3 . 7854 L 1 cm 3 = 1 mL