This is “End-of-Chapter Material”, section 2.7 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (v. 1.0M).
This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (147 MB) or just this chapter (9 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Problems marked with a ♦ involve multiple concepts.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used as a dry cleaning solvent until it was found to cause liver cancer. Based on the structure of chloroform given in Section 2.1 "Chemical Compounds", draw the structure of carbon tetrachloride.
Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen. The ammonium cation is tetrahedral. Refer to Section 2.1 "Chemical Compounds" to draw the structure of the ammonium ion.
The white light in fireworks displays is produced by burning magnesium in air, which contains oxygen. What compound is formed?
Sodium hydrogen sulfite, which is used for bleaching and swelling leather and to preserve flavor in almost all commercial wines, is made from sulfur dioxide. What are the formulas for these two sulfur-containing compounds?
Carbonic acid is used in carbonated drinks. When combined with lithium hydroxide, it produces lithium carbonate, a compound used to increase the brightness of pottery glazes and as a primary treatment for depression and bipolar disorder. Write the formula for both of these carbon-containing compounds.
Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid, an organic acid, in water. What grouping of atoms would you expect to find in the structural formula for acetic acid?
♦ Sodamide, or sodium amide, is prepared from sodium metal and gaseous ammonia. Sodamide contains the amide ion (NH2−), which reacts with water to form the hydroxide anion by removing an H+ ion from water. Sodium amide is also used to prepare sodium cyanide.
A mixture of isooctane, n-pentane, and n-heptane is known to have an octane rating of 87. Use the data in Figure 2.25 "The Octane Ratings of Some Hydrocarbons and Common Additives" to calculate how much isooctane and n-heptane are present if the mixture is known to contain 30% n-pentane.
A crude petroleum distillate consists of 60% n-pentane, 25% methanol, and the remainder n-hexane by mass (Figure 2.25 "The Octane Ratings of Some Hydrocarbons and Common Additives").
Premium gasoline sold in much of the central United States has an octane rating of 93 and contains 10% ethanol. What is the octane rating of the gasoline fraction before ethanol is added? (See Figure 2.25 "The Octane Ratings of Some Hydrocarbons and Common Additives".)
MgO, magnesium oxide
Carbonic acid is H2CO3; lithium carbonate is Li2CO3.