This is “Organic Acids and Bases and Some of Their Derivatives”, chapter 15 from the book Introduction to Chemistry: General, Organic, and Biological (v. 1.0).
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Organic acids have been known for ages. Prehistoric people likely made acetic acid when their fermentation reactions went awry and produced vinegar instead of wine. The Sumerians (2900–1800 BCE) used vinegar as a condiment, a preservative, an antibiotic, and a detergent. Citric acid was discovered by an Islamic alchemist, Jabir Ibn Hayyan (also known as Geber), in the 8th century, and crystalline citric acid was first isolated from lemon juice in 1784 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Medieval scholars in Europe were aware that the crisp, tart flavor of citrus fruits is caused by citric acid. Naturalists of the 17th century knew that the sting of a red ant’s bite was due to an organic acid that the ant injected into the wound. The acetic acid of vinegar, the formic acid of red ants, and the citric acid of fruits all belong to the same family of compounds—carboxylic acids. Soaps are salts of long-chain carboxylic acids. (For more information about soaps, see Chapter 17 "Lipids", Section 17.2 "Fats and Oils".)
Prehistoric people also knew about organic bases—by smell if not by name; amines are the organic bases produced when animal tissue decays.
The organic compounds that we consider in this chapter are organic acids and bases. We will also consider two derivatives of carboxylic acids: esters and amides. An ester is derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Fats and oils are esters, as are many important fragrances and flavors. (For more information about fats and oils, see Chapter 17 "Lipids", Section 17.2 "Fats and Oils".) An amide is derived from a carboxylic acid and either ammonia or an amine. Proteins, often called “the stuff of life,” are polyamides. (For more information about proteins, see Chapter 18 "Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes", Section 18.4 "Proteins".)