This is “Two Types of Bonding”, section 3.1 from the book Introduction to Chemistry: General, Organic, and Biological (v. 1.0).
This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (72 MB) or just this chapter (1 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Atoms can join together by forming a chemical bondA very strong attraction between two atoms., which is a very strong attraction between two atoms. Chemical bonds are formed when electrons in different atoms interact with each other to make an arrangement that is more stable than when the atoms are apart.
What causes atoms to make a chemical bond with other atoms, rather than remaining as individual atoms? A clue comes by considering the noble gas elements, the rightmost column of the periodic table. These elements—helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon—do not form compounds very easily, which suggests that they are especially stable as lone atoms. What else do the noble gas elements have in common? Except for helium, they all have eight valence electrons. Chemists have concluded that atoms are especially stable if they have eight electrons in their outermost shell. This useful rule of thumb is called the octet ruleThe idea that atoms tend to have eight electrons in their valence shell., and it is a key to understanding why compounds form.
Of the noble gases, only krypton, xenon, and radon have been found to make compounds.
There are two ways for an atom that does not have an octet of valence electrons to obtain an octet in its outer shell. One way is the transfer of electrons between two atoms until all atoms have octets. Because some atoms will lose electrons and some atoms will gain electrons, there is no overall change in the number of electrons, but individual atoms acquire a nonzero electric charge. Those that lose electrons become positively charged, and those that gain electrons become negatively charged. Charged atoms are called ionsA charged atom.. Because opposite charges attract (while like charges repel), these oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming ionic bondsAn attraction between oppositely charged ions.. The resulting compounds are called ionic compoundsA compound formed with an ionic bond. and are the primary subject of this chapter.
The second way for an atom to obtain an octet of electrons is by sharing electrons with another atom. These shared electrons simultaneously occupy the outermost shell of more than one atom. The bond made by electron sharing is called a covalent bond. Covalent bonding and covalent compounds will be discussed in Chapter 4 "Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds".
Despite our focus on the octet rule, we must remember that for small atoms, such as hydrogen, helium, and lithium, the first shell is, or becomes, the outermost shell and hold only two electrons. Therefore, these atoms satisfy a “duet rule” rather than the octet rule.
A sodium atom has one valence electron. Do you think it is more likely for a sodium atom to lose one electron or gain seven electrons to obtain an octet?
Although either event is possible, a sodium atom is more likely to lose its single valence electron. When that happens, it becomes an ion with a net positive charge. This can be illustrated as follows:
|Sodium atom||Sodium ion|
|11 protons||11+||11 protons||11+|
|11 electrons||11−||10 electrons||10−|
|0 overall charge||+1 overall charge|
A fluorine atom has seven valence electrons. Do you think it is more likely for a fluorine atom to lose seven electrons or gain one electron to obtain an octet?
What is the octet rule?
How are ionic bonds formed?
The octet rule is the concept that atoms tend to have eight electrons in their valence electron shell.
Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Why is an ionic compound unlikely to consist of two positively charged ions?
Why is an ionic compound unlikely to consist of two negatively charged ions?
A calcium atom has two valence electrons. Do you think it will lose two electrons or gain six electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
An aluminum atom has three valence electrons. Do you think it will lose three electrons or gain five electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
A selenium atom has six valence electrons. Do you think it will lose six electrons or gain two electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
An iodine atom has seven valence electrons. Do you think it will lose seven electrons or gain one electron to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
Positive charges repel each other, so an ionic compound is not likely between two positively charged ions.
It is more likely to lose two electrons.
It is more likely to gain two electrons.