This is “Chapter Summary and Case”, section 4.5 from the book Beginning Human Relations (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here.

For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (43 MB) or just this chapter (941 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).

Has this book helped you? Consider passing it on:
Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you.
DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.

4.5 Chapter Summary and Case

Chapter Summary

  • There are four types of communication at work: downward, upward, horizontal, and diagonal. All types of communication can happen at once, especially with the use of blogs and social networking sites.
  • Companies that use good communication tend to have less turnover and less absenteeism.
  • There are four main types of communication styles: expresser, driver, relater, and analytical. The better we can understand our own style of communication and the communication styles of others, the easier it will be to communicate with them.
  • Passive, aggressive, and passive-aggressive behaviors are not healthy ways of communicating. Assertive behavior, on the other hand, respects one’s own rights and the rights of others.
  • Listening is also an important part of communication. Active listening occurs when we are interested in what the other person has to say, and we check with the speaker to make sure we understand what they have said. Competitive or combative listening is when we are focused on sharing our own point of view. Passive listening is when we listen to someone but do not verify that we understand what someone is saying.
  • When sending e-mails, make sure to follow the four Cs: Clear, correct, concise, and complete.
  • Nonverbal communication is the process of conveying a message without the use of words; it relates to the dynamic process of communication, the perception process and listening, and verbal communication.
  • Nonverbal communication is fluid and fast, universal, confusing, and contextual. It can add to or replace verbal communication and can be intentional or unintentional.
  • Nonverbal communication communicates feelings and attitudes, and people tend to believe nonverbal messages more than verbal ones.
  • Nonverbal communication can be categorized into eight types: space, time, physical characteristics, body movements, touch, paralanguage, artifacts, and environment.

Chapter Case

In each of the situations, identify the type of communication used (upward, downward, or horizontal). Then address the issues with the communication and strategies to improve the communication.

  1. Joey is the branch manager and sends an e-mail to all of his employees, notifying them of a vacation time policy change. Employees are disappointed with this communication, as they felt they should have had some say in the way the policy has changed.
  2. Mariette works on the factory floor and notified her supervisor verbally of some safety concerns. The supervisor is busy and forgets to follow up on the safety concerns.
  3. Kashia works in the hospital’s mental health unit and notifies her colleague via e-mail about the status of three patients. Her colleague doesn’t see the e-mail until later in the day.
  4. Amiee is the manager of an electronics store and leaves notes for her morning opening shift about what is expected for the day. The morning supervisor doesn’t understand one of the notes, so the work does not get done.
  5. At a car dealership, the parts manager and service manager need to work together to order parts needed for services scheduled the following week. This is done via a weekly meeting. However, last week’s meeting was canceled, so all of the parts aren’t in stock to complete the service jobs.
  6. The chief executive officer used a survey to determine employee satisfaction. Only 10 percent of employees responded to the survey.