This is “Summary and Exercise”, section 1.5 from the book Beginning Human Relations (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here.

For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (43 MB) or just this chapter (6 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).

Has this book helped you? Consider passing it on:
Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you.
DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.

1.5 Summary and Exercise

Chapter Summary

  • Human relations is an important part to our career success. It is defined as relations with or between people, particularly in a workplace setting. Because a company depends on good human relations through its organizational structure, developing these skills is important.
  • Technology has greatly impacted human relations because so much of our communication occurs without the advantage of seeing body language. This can result in miscommunications. Many workers telecommute to work. There are advantages and disadvantages, a more notable disadvantage being the lack of human, face-to-face contact.
  • There was an evolution in human relations study. In the classical school of management, the focus was on efficiency and not on human relations.
  • Employees began to unionize in the 1920s due to lack of positive human relations, and therefore the behavioral school of management was created. During this time period, researchers began to focus on the human relations aspect of the workplace. One of the major theories developed was the Hawthorne effect, which determined that workers were more productive when they were being watched and cared about by researchers.
  • During the 1950s, the behavioral science approach looked at management techniques as a way to increase productivity and human relations.
  • In the 1960s and beyond, sophisticated tools allow researchers to analyze more data and focus on the statistical aspects of human relations and management data.
  • Personality is defined as a stable set of traits that can explain or predict a person’s behavior in a variety of situations. Our personality affects the way we interact with others. Our personality comes from both environmental factors and some factors we are just born with (nature).
  • Values are the things we find important to us. If our values conflict with another’s, there may be a miscommunication or other issues.
  • Attitudes can be favorable or unfavorable feelings toward people, things, or situations. Our attitudes have a great impact on each other. If one person has a bad attitude, it is likely to be contagious. We can do many things to change our attitude, but all include making a conscious effort to be aware of our negative thoughts and feelings.
  • Perception refers to how we interpret stimuli such as people, things, or events. Our perception is important to recognize because it is the driving force behind our reaction to things.
  • Heredity, needs, peer group, interests, and expectations all influence our perception. A halo effect or reverse halo effect can also influence our perception.
  • Self-esteem is defined as the opinion one has about their value as a person. This is different than self-confidence, which refers to the belief someone has in themselves. Both are important determinants to career and human relations success.
  • Self-efficacy is the confidence someone has to carry out a specific task. Self-confidence and self-efficacy can come from a variety of sources.
  • Self-image is how you think others view you, while projection refers to how your self-esteem is reflected in others.
  • The Johari window is a tool to look at our own self-esteem and learn how others view us. The Johari window involves the open area, hidden area, blind area, and unknown area.

Chapter Exercise

  1. Using the following adjectives, please select five to six that best describe you. Once you have done this, have someone who knows you well select five to six adjectives. Compare those you selected to those your friend selected, and then place in the appropriate window of Johari’s model, the open area, blind area, unknown area, or hidden area. Then answer the following questions:

    1. What surprised you most about the adjectives your friend chose?
    2. What are some ways you can make your hidden area more open? What are the advantages to doing this?
    3. How do you think this exercise relates to your self-esteem?
    4. How can the information you gained about yourself apply to positive human relations?
simple brash vulgar unimaginative violent
withdrawn childish unhappy irrational insecure
cynical impatient inane imperceptive hostile
boastful panicky distant loud needy
weak smug chaotic self-satisfied ignorant
unethical predictable vacuous overdramatic blasé
rash foolish passive unreliable embarrassed
callous patient dull dependable insensitive
humorless powerful intelligent dignified dispassionate
sensible proud introverted energetic inattentive
sentimental quiet kind extroverted able
shy reflective knowledgeable friendly accepting
silly relaxed logical giving adaptable
spontaneous religious loving happy bold
sympathetic responsive mature helpful brave
tense searching modest idealistic calm
trustworthy self-assertive nervous independent caring
warm self-conscious observant ingenious cheerful
wise cowardly organized inflexible clever
witty irresponsible timid glum complex
intolerant selfish unhelpful aloof confident

The Johari Window