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11.3 Too Little or Too Much Weight: What Are the Health Risks?

Learning Objective

  1. Discern the differences in health risks associated with being underweight and being overweight.

The number of people considered overweight and obese in the world has now surpassed the number that are starving, with some officials estimating that the number of overweight people is nearly double the number of underweight people worldwide. Countries that have more recently modernized, industrialized, and urbanized are experiencing a surge in their overweight and obese populations. China, the most populous country in the world, now has more than 215 million people, approximately one-fifth of their population, that are considered overweight or obese.Wu, Yangfeng. “Overweight and obesity in China.” BMJ. 2006 August 19; 333(7564): 362–363. doi: 10.1136/bmj.333.7564.362. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550451/. The increase in China’s waistline is partly attributed to changes in the traditional diet, more sedentary lives, and a massive increase in motor vehicle use. Moreover, China’s recent famines in the 1950s, which affected the poor and lower classes to a greater extent than the upper class, has sanctioned lax social attitudes toward body fat and reinspired the age-old Chinese belief that excess body fat represents health and prosperity.

One of the worst statistics regarding overweight and obesity in China is that more than ten million adolescents between ages seventeen and eighteen were overweight in 2000, which is twenty-eight times the number that were overweight in 1985.Wu, Y. “Overweight and Obesity in China.” Br Med J 333, no. 7564 (2006): 362. doi: 10.1136/bmj.333.7564.362. The associated diseases of overweight and obesity happen over many years and signs and symptoms commonly take decades to manifest. With China’s younger population and other developed countries experiencing a dramatic weight increase, the associated chronic diseases will come about much earlier in life than in previous generations. This will put an even greater burden on society.

Video 11.2

Chinese Obesity

(click to see video)

Watch this video on the surge in Chinese obesity and how the country’s rapid increase in modernization contributes to its obesity epidemic.

Health Risks of Being Overweight and Being Obese

The health consequences of obesity are great and are responsible for more than one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States. According to the CDC, in the United States in 2007–2008:

  • 34 percent of adults age twenty years and over are obese
  • 34 percent of adults age twenty years and over are overweight (but not obese)
  • 18 percent of adolescents age twelve to nineteen years are obese
  • 20 percent of children age six to eleven years are obese
  • 10 percent of children age two to five years are obeseThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Obesity and Overweight.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm.

State Map of the Prevalence of Obesity in America

Visit www.cdc.gov/obesity/downloads/obesity_trends_2010.ppt to see the obesity trends from 1985 to 2010. As you will see, the percentages of obese adults are rising.

As BMIs increase over 25, the risks increase for heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, stroke, osteoarthritis, liver disease, gallbladder disorders, and hormonal disorders. The WHO reports that overweight and obesity are the fifth leading cause for deaths globally, and estimates that more than 2.8 million adults die annually as a result of being overweight or obese.World Health Organization. “Obesity and Overweight.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. Moreover, overweight and obesity contribute to 44 percent of the Type 2 diabetes burden, 23 percent of the heart disease burden, and between 7 and 41 percent of the burden of certain cancers.World Health Organization. “Obesity and Overweight.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.

Similar to other public health organizations, the WHO states the main causes of the obesity epidemic worldwide are the increased intake of energy-dense food and decreased level of physical activity that is mainly associated with modernization, industrialization, and urbanization. The environmental changes that contribute to the dietary and physical activity patterns of the world today are associated with the lack of policies that address the obesity epidemic in the health, urban planning, agriculture, food industry, and education sectors.

Health Risks of Being Underweight

The 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that 1.8 percent of adults and 3.3 percent of children and adolescents in the United States are underweight.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “NCHS Health E-Stat. Prevalence of Underweight among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2003–2006.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/underweight/underweight_children.htm. Being underweight is linked to nutritional deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, and to other problems such as delayed wound healing, hormonal abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infection, and increased risk of some chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. In children, being underweight can stunt growth. The most common underlying cause of underweight in America is inadequate nutrition. Other causes are wasting diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, and eating disorders. People with wasting diseases are encouraged to seek nutritional counseling, as a healthy diet greatly affects survival and improves responses to disease treatments. Eating disorders that result in underweight affect about eight million Americans (seven million women and one million men).

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosaA psychiatric illness in which a person obssesses over their weight and the food that they eat. Anorexia results in extreme nutrient inadequacy and, eventually, organ malfunction., more often referred to as “anorexia,” is a psychiatric illness in which a person obssesses about their weight and about food that they eat. Anorexia results in extreme nutrient inadequacy and eventually to organ malfunction. Anorexia is relatively rare—the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reports that 0.9 percent of females and 0.3 percent of males will have anorexia at some point in their lifetime,The National Institute of Mental Health. “Eating Disorders among Adults: Anorexia Nervosa.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://mentalhealth.gov/statistics/1EAT_ADULT_ANX.shtml. but it is an extreme example of how an unbalanced diet can affect health. Anorexia frequently manifests during adolescence and it has the highest rate of mortality of all mental illnesses. People with anorexia consume, on average, fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per day and exercise excessively. They are in a tremendous caloric imbalance. Moreover, some may particpate in binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and purging with laxatives or enemas. The very first time a person starves him- or herself may trigger the onset of anorexia. The exact causes of anorexia are not completely known, but many things contribute to its development including economic status, as it is most prevalent in high-income families. It is a genetic disease and is often passed from one generation to the next. Pregnancy complications and abnormalities in the brain, endocrine system, and immune system may all contribute to the development of this illness.

The primary signs of anorexia are fear of being overweight, extreme dieting, an unusual perception of body image, and depression. The secondary signs and symptoms of anorexia are all related to the caloric and nutrient deficiencies of the unbalanced diet and include excessive weight loss, a multitude of skin abnormalities, diarrhea, cavities and tooth loss, osteoporosis, and liver, kidney, and heart failure. There is no physical test that can be used to diagnose anorexia and distinguish it from other mental illnesses. Therefore a correct diagnosis involves eliminating other mental illnesses, hormonal imbalances, and nervous system abnormalties. Eliminating these other possibilities involves numerous blood tests, urine tests, and x-rays. Coexisting organ malfunction is also examined. Treatment of any mental illness involves not only the individual, but also family, friends, and a psychiatric counselor. Treating anorexia also involves a dietitian, who helps to provide dietary solutions that often have to be adjusted over time. The goals of treatment for anorexia are to restore a healthy body weight and significantly reduce the behaviors associated with causing the eating disorder. Relapse to an unbalanced diet is high. Many people do recover from anorexia, however most continue to have a lower-than-normal bodyweight for the rest of their lives (see Note 11.33 "Video 11.3").

Video 11.3

What I Gained in Recovery from Anorexia

(click to see video)

On a more positive note, watch this personal account of what can be gained from anorexia recovery.

Bulimia

BulimiaA psychiatric illness characterized by frequent episodes of eating large amounts of food followed by purging., like anorexia, is a psychiatric illness that can have severe health consequences. The NIMH reports that 0.5 percent of females and 0.1 percent of males will have bulimia at some point in their lifetime.The National Institute of Mental Health. “Eating Disorders among Adults: Bulimia Nervosa.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://mentalhealth.gov/statistics/1EAT_ADULT_RBUL.shtml. Bulimia is characterized by episodes of eating large amounts of food followed by purging, which is accomplished by vomiting and with the use of laxatives and diuretics. Unlike people with anorexia, those with bulimia often have a normal weight, making the disorder more difficult to detect and diagnose. The disorder is characterized by signs similar to anorexia such as fear of being overweight, extreme dieting, and bouts of excessive exercise. Secondary signs and symptoms include gastric reflux, severe erosion of tooth enamel, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, lacerations in the mouth from vomiting, and peptic ulcers. Repeated damage to the esophagus puts people with bulimia at an increased risk for esophageal cancer. The disorder is also highly genetic, linked to depression and anxiety disorders, and most commonly occurs in adolescent girls and young women. Treatment often involves antidepressant medications and, like anorexia, has better results when both the family and the individual with the disorder participate in nutritional and psychiatric counseling.

Binge-Eating Disorder

Similar to those who experience anorexia and bulimia, people who have a binge-eating disorderA nonpsychiatric disorder characterized by periodic losses of control over eating. The periods of excessive overeating are not followed by fasting or purging. People who have this disorder are often overweight or obese. have lost control over their eating. Binge-eating disorder is not currently diagnosed as a distinct psychiatric illness, although there is a proposal from the American Psychiatric Association to categorize it more specifically. People with binge-eating disorder will periodically overeat to the extreme, but their loss of control over eating is not followed by fasting, purging, or compulsive exercise. As a result, people with this disorder are often overweight or obese, and their chronic disease risks are those linked to having an abnormally high body weight such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and Type 2 diabetes. Additionally, they often experience guilt, shame, and depression. Binge-eating disorder is commonly associated with depression and anxiety disorders. According to the NIMH, binge-eating disorder is more prevalent than anorexia and bulimia, and affects 3.5 percent of females and 2.0 percent of males at some point during their lifetime.The National Institute of Mental Health. “Eating Disorders among Adults: Binge Eating Disorder.” Accessed October 8, 2011. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1EAT_ADULT_RB.shtml. Treatment often involves antidepressant medication as well as nutritional and psychiatric counseling.

Key Takeaways

  • The number of people considered overweight and obese in the world has now surpassed the number that is starving.
  • As BMIs increase over 25, the risks increase for heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, endometrial cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, stroke, osteoarthritis, liver disease, gallbladder disorders, and hormonal disorders.
  • Being underweight is linked to nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies cause iron-deficiency anemia and also delayed wound healing, hormonal abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infection, and increased risk of some chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. In children, being underweight can stunt growth.
  • Eating disorders resulting in being underweight can have severe consequences to health. The eating disorder anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of all mental illnesses.
  • All underweight people do not have anorexia and all overweight people do not have an eating disorder.

Discussion Starters

  1. Visit the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website and discuss the impact of the rise in obesity in developing countries.

    http://www.fao.org/FOCUS/E/obesity/obes1.htm

  2. Even as adults in this society we “profile” people with excess body fat as lazy and other disrespectful adjectives. Moreover, society commonly “profiles” people who are too skinny as being compulsive and vain. Propose ideas for improving body image during teenage years.